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the Device of floors from materials on the basis of wood (ch. 2)

Deal floors, in turn, also lay on logs. Distance between logs establish depending on a thickness of boards of a covering of a floor. At distance between logs no more than 800 mm the thickness of boards should be 37 mm, and at distance no more than 500 - 25. At use for a floor covering shpuntovannyh boards their thickness it is possible to reduce about 20 mm.

Logs in a kind bruskov or plates in the thickness of 40-50 mm and width 100-120 mm, depending on the basis, stack directly on overlapping on linings or on brick columns. On continuous panels of interfloor overlappings at first stack continuous linings from wood-fiber or drevesnostruzhechnyh plates for sound insulation of floors from air and shock sounds. Instead of linings it is possible to apply sandy zasypku from dry sand in the thickness to 20 mm on which stack logs. At nastilke a floor on multihollow panels sandy zasypku do in the thickness to 40 mm.

At the device of deal floors on a ground which level below level otmostki, logs stack on the special basis. In the beginning stack shchebenochnuju preparation, stamping it in a ground on depth not less than 40 mm, then arrange concrete preparation by thickness of 80 mm, and on top establish columns from a brick. They are done by section 250X250 mm in height by of 150 mm of well burnt corpulent brick on a cement mortal of M 25. Distance between axes of columns accept equal to distance between axes a log. On columns stack wooden antiseptirovannye linings on two layers of the roofing felt which edges let out from under linings on 30-40 mm and krepjat to them nails.

Stack logs across a direction of light from windows or across to the basic direction of movement of people indoors.

Before the beginning of the device of a flooring of a board adjust on the size and display on logs. Thus it is necessary to consider that joining of boards should be carried out necessarily on logs. In living rooms it is better to apply shpuntovannye boards. At them nastilke in the beginning stack perpendicularly to logs the first board a crest to a wall and nail up to logs in the length exceeding in 2,5 times a thickness of a board. The same as and in the previous cases, nails hammer into the bottom shelf of a groove under an inclination and finish with the help dobojnika. After that in a groove of the laid board get a crest following and by means of special szhimov or wedges (skob) press a board so that the crest has completely entered into a groove, and between boards there was a minimum backlash. Between boards and a wall it is necessary to leave a backlash equal 20 mm which then close a plinth.

In auxiliary premises it is possible to lay floors from neshpuntovannyh boards which nail up to logs of perpendicularly plane of a board.

For maintenance of airing of space between a floor and the basis in opposite corners of each room and near heating devices in floors cut ventilating lattices which lift over floor level on 10-15 mm by means of wooden frameworks-it will interfere with moisture hit at washing of floors.

After end of works on nastilke boards floors plane, shpatljujut, olifjat and paint paints or enamels for a floor.

For the device of floors in various subsidiary premises of an individual apartment house or house on a garden site three-layer plywood and even a cardboard can be used wood-fiber and drevesnostruzhechnye plates. From all variety of marks of wood-fiber plates for a covering of floors more all approaches superfirm DVP, specially intended for this purpose.

Plates are issued by length from 1200 to 3500 mm, width from 1220 to 2140 mm and thickness of 2,5-6 mm. However it is possible to apply to garden small houses and firm DVP. Because plates are characterised by insignificant durability on a bend, they are necessary for stacking on the equal basis. For example, the old timber floors having hollows and cracks, it is necessary to repair preliminary, an exfoliating paint to scratch out shpatelem, all loosened boards to beat, the heads of nails acting on a surface to hammer so that hats have hidden, wide cracks to fill with a tow or a cord. Cracks fill oil shpatlevkoj with sawdust in the ratio 1:1. The big cracks close up shpatlevkoj, including 5 parts of sawdust, as much cement, 14 waters and 2 joiner's glues.

It is possible to use also shpatlevku other structure: in 5 litres of water dissolve 0,5 kg of joiner's glue; to the received glutinous solution add 1-1,5 kg of drying oil, and then a ground chalk before reception smetanoobraznoj weights. If the existing basis of a floor cold, on it is necessary to make a coupler from "=хяыюую" a material - shlakobetona, keramzitobetona as wood-fiber plates do not provide the necessary factor teplousvoenija a floor and sound insulation from shock noise.

In heated premises with short stay of people (kitchen, corridors), and also in not heated premises wood-fiber plates stack directly on a cement-sandy coupler.

For priklejki superfirm wood-fiber plates to a cement-sandy coupler apply hot bitumen mastic which is characterised by good gluing properties.

Before plate gluing necessarily maintain two-three days in a warm premise, and works make at temperature not more low 15-18°Р. Plates raskraivajut also cut so that their edges were on distance of 10-15 mm from walls. Besides, it is necessary to aspire, that seams between plates have been in regular intervals distributed on a floor surface. Anyway, crossing of 4 seams in one point is inadmissible. Among themselves plates prirezajut the same as also linoleum, i.e. With nahlestkoj one plate on another and simultaneous them prirezkoj under a ruler.

A cement-sandy coupler or the concrete basis before mastic drawing ground the structure consisting of bitumen and gasoline. A first coat maintain before full drying.

Mastic is put on a coupler by the scrapers allowing in regular intervals to distribute of it on a surface by a layer in the thickness 1 mm. Plates stack on mastic and prikatyvajut manual skating rinks or grind in bags with sand.

On the cement-sandy and wooden basis wood-fiber plates can be pasted also kumarono-nairitovymi mastics КН-2 and КН-3. These mastics put on the basis rubber shpatelem a layer in the thickness of 0,2-0,3 mm and maintain 1-2 ch. Then mastic put on the back party of sheet and through 20-30 mines press to the basis.

To a wooden surface of a plate it is possible to glue kazeinovym glue. In practice sometimes before gluing of plates their obverse surface humidify and maintain in stacks within days. It prevents koroblenie plates.

One of lacks of such covering of a floor is backlog of edges from a surface while in service. Therefore in some cases plates fasten on a contour to the basis nails the in length of 20-25 mm.

Seams between plates it is necessary carefully zashpatlevat strong shpatlevkami, for example epoksidnoj, and then to paint paints for floors for two times. After drying of a paint for its protection it is possible to cover a floor surface pentaftalevym with varnish ПФ-231.

Drevesnostruzhechnymi cover with plates floors in the premises not subject to humidifying. As a rule, drevesnostruzhechnuju a plate stack on wooden logs. The thickness a log under drevesnostruzhechnye plates should be 40-50 mm, and width of 100-120 mm. Logs stack across a direction of natural light, the distance between logs should be no more than 0,4 m. If it turns out sves plates more than on 100 mm, it is necessary to enclose an additional support. Between logs and walls leave a backlash of 20-30 mm. Before packing in process raskroja plates on perimetre it is recommended to cut off for the width of 100-150 mm, as edges of plates, as a rule, more poorly and less a water rack. The same as and at a paving from wood-fiber plates, at packing drevesnostruzhechnyh plates it is necessary to leave a backlash between a wall and an edge of plates. To be joined plates should only on logs. Plates nail up or fasten screws with step of 100-120 mm along an edge of a joint and through 300-400 mm in the middle of a plate. Nails apply in the length 50-60, screws - 35-40 mm.

After nastilki a floor and installation of plinths joints between plates shpatljujut, then grind an emery paper and coat for a floor for 2 times with the subsequent covering a varnish.

Three-layer plywood also can be used for a paving of floors. Structure of works on I will open, razrezke and to plywood fastening it is similar described earlier for wood-fiber plates. It is necessary three-layer plywood krepit to the basis nails together with glue. The cardboard covering of a floor also can be used for country houses. To this purpose apply a rolled cardboard. Before a label it cut on panels. At raskroe it is necessary to consider that the second coat layer should keep within perpendicularly to the first.

If a cardboard paste on the wooden basis works are conducted in such sequence. A cloth of a dry cardboard stack on the basis and fix one end wooden rejkoj and nails. Other end turn off to the middle.

Paste a cardboard on the wooden well dried basis with the help kazeinovogo, mezdrovogo glues, paste from a rye flour with addition kazeinovogo glue, KMTS, "…ѕё=шыр=р" etc. All deepenings on the basis should be levelled and zashpatlevany.

Glue is put on the basis sites the in width by of 40-50 sm, and then on a cardboard and after that press to the basis, carefully smoothing. It is necessary to watch, that between the basis and a cardboard air bubbles and not pasted places were not formed. The pasted cardboard press on a contour rejkami by means of the nails hammered not to the end.

After that from the end of other half of cloth remove rejku, beaten at the very beginning of work, turn off a cardboard in a roll and all operations on gluing repeat. If a cardboard paste on the cement basis rejki attach not nails, and press heavy subjects.

For gluing to a cement-sandy or concrete surface it is possible to use obojnye glues, and also widely applied mastics "…ѕё=шыр=" "…ѕ=шыръё" PVAE and others. A cardboard covering impregnate with natural or artificial drying oil which increases hardness and firmness to blow of a surface of a covering.

The Warmed-up drying oil in the small portions pour out on a cardboard and pound a brush. After drying oil will well dry out (on it some days is required), it is possible to paste the second layer of a cardboard with which also impregnate with drying oil.

Well dried out covering paint a paint for a floor for 2-3 times. To apply such covering in premises with damp processes (for example, in kitchens, bathing) it is not recommended.