For facing works the small tooling (fig. 29 see ) is required, to prepare which it is necessary prior to the beginning of works.
At height of the first row of tiles pull the horizontal cord-prichalku which ends adhere to nails. This cord serves as a reference point for packing of the first majachnogo a number. To place tiles it is necessary from the wall middle to edges, precisely observing breakdown of seams and their thickness. If the floor plane is not horizontal that it is easy to check up level, first row tiles at packing should be cut off so that their upper edges have formed a direct horizontal line.
In the beginning and in the end of the second bottom and top numbers are established majachnye tiles. It is necessary to watch, that they have been established strictly on the cords pulled between nails.
After installation majachnyh tiles on second row top the horizontal cord-prichalka on which facing will be carried out again stretches.
That work should not be altered often, it is necessary to give special attention to plasticity of a solution which depends on the water cement relation and sand. Plasticity can be checked up as follows. On the back party of the tile cleared of a dust put a few solution, then sharp movement dump from a tile. If on a tile there will be a part of the stuck solution, it means is suitable for facing works. Too rigid solution will be late on a tile all. In this case in it it is necessary to add waters. If on a surface there will be no absolutely a solution, in it it is necessary to add cement and sand.
a Fig. 30. The basic operations on facing by tiles :
And - packing of a tile with a solution; - tile cutting; in - razlamyvanie tiles
Packing of tiles on a solution is made as follows. First of all it is necessary to moisten a surface with water. Then, taking in the left hand preliminary moistened tile, the right hand impose a solution on its back party. The thickness of a layer should provide full filling of space between a wall and a tile without emptiness. Then a tile with a solution bring to a packing place, fast movement translate in vertical position and press to a revetted surface (fig. 30. Definitive "яюёрфър" tiles comes to the end with easy blows of the wooden handle of a shovel. The superfluous solution which has acted from seams, it is necessary to remove. In the course of facing a surface periodically check rejkoj or a rule, watching that there were no backlashes between rejkoj and a wall plane. For seam reception between tiles stack linings of a necessary thickness from wooden reek, nails etc.
Sometimes it is necessary to lay halves or quarters of tiles. For this purpose steklografom put on a tile the necessary size, then steklorezom under a ruler make an incision glazurovannyj a layer and a tile break about a table edge, an edge wooden rejki, etc., preliminary having knocked along a cut line (from a tile underside) with the handle stekloreza or a hammer (fig. 30. Narrow strips break off nippers. Small oval cuts in a tile, necessary at facing round pipes, take a bite kusachkami or nippers. Sometimes the tile should be cut half-and-half, to take a bite oval apertures in two halves, then - to establish round a pipe so that a seam has not been swept up.
Keen edges after cutting of tiles can be smoothed out a grinding stone or a rasp. Seams between tiles fill after shvatyvanija layers under a tile - in two-three days. To their filling apply solutions with the raised maintenance of cement. Depending on colour of a tile, it is possible to apply white and colour cements, white cement with addition shchelochestojkih pigments (ohra, minium, soot). It is possible to use also the gipso-cretaceous mastic consisting of equal parts of plaster and a chalk, and necessary quantity of animal glue. Sometimes mastic prepare from four parts of a chalk and one part of drying oil. After filling seams rub clean rags or a mitten.
This most widespread way of furnish of premises in apartment is called a seam in a seam.
Other way - vrazbezhku, simulates a stone laying, i.e. Tiles of overlying numbers move concerning underlaying on half. To carry out such facing it is much easier, as in this case it is necessary to watch only horizontal position of stacked tiles.
Sometimes, in the decorative purposes, facing on a diagonal is applied. Thus tiles stack at an angle 45° to a horizontal line of a floor. Is better to conduct facing by the separate sites limited horizontal and vertical frizovymi to numbers.
Facing on a diagonal is conducted similarly to facing a seam in a seam. Feature consists that frizovye numbers should be such length that on their inside the integer of triangular halves of the tile in advance cut how kept within is described above. At packing of ordinary tiles the cord-prichalka stretches at an angle 45° to frizovym to numbers according to halves.