At furnish of apartment or an individual apartment house decorative products from plaster can be used: relief tiles and plates for facing of walls or ceilings, decorative inserts, and also modelled details - sockets, medallions etc. The last make at repair of premises of old apartment houses more often.
The Most widespread ways of manufacturing of decorative products - a carving on plaster and casting of products from a plaster solution. A carving on plaster apply to performance of separate decorative inserts or details. If identical products are required some, it is necessary to use a way of casting from a plaster solution.
the Carving on plaster . A carving on plaster begin with working out of the sketch of an ornament which will serve subsequently as a template for drawing reconducting on a material. For this purpose take a dense drawing or glossy paper. An ornament, as a rule, do so that rapport drawing repeated some times on a plate. For this purpose sheet bend, for example, four times, fastening its paper clips. Then on one part of the combined sheet put a pencil drawing rapporta and shilom or by a needle do nakoly on all lines of drawing. When sheet develop, on all its surface the dotted line will reproduce a contour rapporta.
After template manufacturing start to formovke a plaster plate on which the ornament will be cut. To form a squared shape plate is better on a smooth surface of a table. The framework is done from wooden reek in the length 1000, in the width 50 and height by 30 mm. Having fixed their nails in length of 40-50 mm, hammered not up to the end, and having greased a plane of a table and lateral internal sides reek, it is possible to start to formovke. A plaster solution in a forming framework fill in in two steps. A solution for the first bottom layer make in gipsovke of two parts of plaster and three parts of water. When plaster completely will absorb water, having got a sour cream consistence, it is cautious, without mixing, pour out in the prepared form. The solution should a uniform layer in the thickness about 20 mm be distributed on the form bottom. The solution prepared and filled in thus seizes quickly enough. Approximately through 10 mines a surface of the fallen asleep solution wipe a wet rag and fill in the second layer. This layer should keep plasticity more long time as the carving will be just put on this layer. This layer should keep plasticity more long time as the carving will be just put on this layer. Old masters for term prolongation shvatyvanija plaster well kneaded it. To knead a solution than 3-4 minutes Through 10-15 mines after shvatyvanija a solution cautiously are necessary carefully remove rejki forms not less. If the obverse surface of a plate has turned out not absolutely equal, it level a scalpel or a knife.
a Fig. 58. Receptions of cutting of relief ornaments
Then the prepared template of drawing of the future relief stack on a plate surface. In places where on a cliche are made nakoly, put a dry pigment. After that a template remove, received on a plate surface dotted drawing of an ornament lead round a pencil and start procutting by a scalpel of contours of the future ornament. A scalpel take in the right hand, incline at an angle approximately 45° to a surface and, having deepened an edge in plaster, conduct it near to a planimetric line, having receded from it towards a background on 2-3 mm. At performance of this operation by fingers of the left hand help right, holding and directing a scalpel. That plaster was well cut, it periodically sprinkle water, and at breaks in work a plate cover with a damp rag and a polyethylene film.
After end podrezki start removal of a layer of the plaster which is a background of an ornament. The background plane should be equal, without hollows and bugorkov.
The Received acting ornament then process in the various ways, giving it the finished kind. One of them consists that all sharp edges of acting elements approximate a scalpel in such a manner that in section each element will look a semioval. At processing on other way all elements of an ornament are carried out in the top part in the form of an acute angle formed by two sides of cuts. One more reception consists that the middle of each element of an ornament two sides of cuts (fig. 58 goes deep).
It is possible to familiarise With other receptions of the further cutting of ornaments in the special literature.