the Mosaic from a tree is drawing or an ornament, made (typed) of the separate slices densely driven to each other strogannogo or lushchenogo an interline interval. Two technics of performance of a mosaic from a tree - intarsija and marketri distinguish.
Intarsija consists that picked up for colour and a structure (drawing) slices of the interline interval which is parts of a mosaic set, are inserted into a basis - in specially cut out deepenings zapodlitso with a surface of a finished subject. In marketri the background and the image produce the whole set.
Intarsija is labour-consuming and laborious and demands an exquisite workmanship. Therefore in the present section more accessible technics of manufacturing of a mosaic from a tree - marketri is considered.
Work begin about sketches on a paper of drawing of a mosaic composition in colour the natural size. In the technician marketri can be executed both ornaments, and graphic motives. However the main feature that all subjects, as a rule, are represented in a profile or fas. Free foreshortenings and the turns widely applied in painting, in a wooden mosaic meet seldom. It is necessary to remember one more rule: at drawing performance it is not necessary to split up the image as in decorative art it is subject to stylisation, i.e. To generalisation.
The Created drawing translate on a tracing-paper subsequently to receive its return image for carrying over on an interline interval intended for a background (in marketri a background consider a surface on which drawing for a cutting is put).
The image Drawn on an interline interval cut out on a contour a slanting knife. Thus the knife is necessary for disciplining vertically, trying not to incline it in the parties. Otherwise at connection of details there can be gleams. It is necessary to cut with good pressing so that the cut out detail at nakalyvanii it on a cutter tip was easily taken out from an interline interval, forming in a background an accurate contour.
After that start selection of an interline interval for colour and a structure for an insert. For this purpose under a background with the formed cut enclose serially one after another slices of an interline interval from different breeds, comparing them with the colour sketch. As soon as the most suitable will be found, it is possible to cut out an insert for what the background and the interline interval enclosed under it densely press one hand that they were not displaced. Then a knife lead round contours of the future insert and cut out it. For fastening in a background an insert stick with a gluing tape or the strips of a paper greased dekstrinovym with glue. The party stuck with a tape or a paper - obverse. Thus prepare all elements of drawing.
The Ready set paste on a product surface. To manual veneering apply bone more often or mezdrovyj glue, and recently a wide circulation has received glue on the basis of PVA.
Paste a mosaic set thus. nelitsevuju a set wipe wood vinegar. After that a basis surface grease hot bone or mezdrovym glue, quickly stack nelitsevoj a mosaic set and grind in a hand. From above a set cover with a smooth wooden or metal plate and press cargo. That the glue filtering from cracks of a set could not stick to a plate surface, it is necessary for greasing or wiping soap. In that case when in artworks on a tree are engaged constantly, it is possible to make a special press with homutovymi clamps (fig. 62).
a Fig. 62. A press General view
If glue PVA is used, it is possible to exclude prigruz. On the set pasted to a surface stack a damp fabric and iron a hot iron. To clean the appeared emptiness between a set and the basis, a surface it is possible prokatat the platen, for example for what is used in a photo for nakatki photographic papers on a glossy surface. In places of connections if the various thickness of inserts is appreciable, seams smooth a knife-cutter blunt end.
After glue will harden, start clearing of a mosaic surface of a sticking together material - tapes or papers. A paper with glue moisten with water, allow to dry out a little and smooth out tsiklej. The inclination tsikli to a surface should be small to provide removal of the most thin shaving. Then a surface grind an emery paper. Krupnost the abrasive surface should reduce gradually, leading up to the smallest. Grinding, as well as tsiklevanie, it is necessary to conduct along fibres of the largest elements of drawing.
For filling of a time and cracks which all the same could remain on a set surface, it ground. For this purpose apply wax, kanifolno-cretaceous and other mastics.
Wax mastic consists of 1 part of wax and 2 parts of turpentine. On a water bath plavjat wax, in it add turpentine. After cooling mastic put on a surface a brush and pound a wool. Kanifolno-cretaceous mastic includes 30 g rosin, 60 g a chalk and 100 g gasoline. In the beginning dissolve in gasoline rosin, then pour a chalk and carefully mix. A first coat put on a surface a brush and pound. Large cracks and skoly, formed at tsiklevanii, fill podmazkoj from small sawdust and a nitrovarnish.
It is necessary to notice that wood of many breeds of trees has no strongly pronounced colour. Therefore for is art-decorative works in some cases an interline interval paint or pickle.
To dyeing apply dyes of a natural and artificial origin. Them dissolve in water, spirit, turpentine. It bejtsy, morilki and acid dyes.
A dye Powder dissolve in water with the additive of acetic acid. Before colouring an interline interval process a weak solution copper kuporosa (0,5 of%-s'), and then a water solution of dye (0,5-2 of%-s'). That dye got into wood more deeply, in it add 5% of liquid ammonia, pour it in the zinced ware, lower in it an interline interval and maintain on small fire nearby 2 ch. To check up, what tone turns out, an interline interval periodically take out tweezers and examine. After dyeing it is necessary for washing out and drying up: in the beginning on air, and then under a press.
For protravlivanija use salts of metals which, coming into contact to tannins, give colouring to wood. So, 5%-s' solution iron kuporosa allows to paint an interline interval of an oak, a nut and a beech in black colour, and a maple and birch interline interval - in dark grey; 1%-s' solution of the same salt will give to an oak and nut interline interval livid colour, to a beech - grey, and to a maple and a birch - the light-lilac 1%-s' solution copper kuporosa will paint an oak and a nut in brown colour.
That colour has turned out equal and pure without stains, the interline interval is desirable for clearing of pitch (it concerns, first of all, coniferous breeds). For this purpose a brush on an interline interval piece put 25%-s' solution of acetone or solvent for oil varnishes and paints. Then an interline interval bleach to receive monophonic colouring, and in some cases - even new colour shades. For example, the interline interval of a walnut with a violet shade at bleaching can get a pink shade; an oak - light green, and a beech - light yellow.
The Most widespread bleaching solution is 5-10%-s' water solution shchavelevoj acids. It is possible to use as well chloric izvest, dissolved in water to a pastelike condition, or hydrogen peroxide.
The Mosaic from a tree as well as carved wooden surfaces, cover with varnishes - spirit more often, pitch or nitrocellulose which put a tampon, a brush, a pistol-spray.
High quality of a surface receive the level-by-level drawing of a varnish alternated to grinding by a small skin. Thus the third, last layer put the liquid varnish diluted with solvent.