Art processing of a tree shares on ploskorelefnuju, a relief and openwork carving, a mosaic from a tree.
Ploskorelefnaja the carving depending on performance technics can be geometrical, planimetric, with zaovalennymi contours, with the picked up background (fig. 61).
The Beginner is better to use for carved works breeds soft and homogeneous for colour - a linden, an alder. After acquisition of certain skills it is possible to pass to processing of a nut, a pear, a beech, an oak. For a carving choose a clear wood, without defects or damages.
Work begin with sketch working out where carefully trace the conceived ornament. Ready drawing transfer on a tracing-paper, and from it - on a processed surface.
The Geometrical carving the most simple, drawing for it is made of simple figures - squares, circles, triangles.
a Fig. 61. The basic types of woodcarving :
And - a geometrical carving with profound drawing; - a planimetric carving; in - with eaovalennymi contours; g - with podushechnym a background; d - with the picked up background
It is carried out a cutting torch in the thickness by of 0,2 sm and several small chisels. The ornament from simple geometrical figures on all plane should have the identical sizes, depth and the form and Can be received at crossing of the straight lines parallel to edges of the processed surface. Such lines cut a cutting torch which is put vertically by surfaces. The cutting torch edge is cut in wood on depth by of 1,5-2 mm and conduct from an opposite edge in a direction to itself with an inclination to the right at an angle approximately 30-40°. That the cutting torch did not wag and did not do skoly at wood, a cutting torch heel incline to a finished surface. The first pass by a cutting torch which name nadrezkoj, stop so that not to fall outside the limits an ornament. For this purpose in the end of a line movement of a hand detain also a cutting torch heel raise a little. After that change position and spend a cutting torch on the same line at an angle to other party. The equal groove of triangular section as a result turns out.
It is necessary to notice that the carving of fibres is more difficult, therefore a cutting torch heel at work raise.
Crossing of parallel lines across and along fibres receive the elementary drawing in the form of squares - "°р°хёъш". The lines crossed on a diagonal, form other pattern - "ёх=ъѕ". One of widely applied kinds of a geometrical carving is trihedrally-vyemochnaja the carving.
It is carried out in the form of three - tetrahedral, square and rhombic piramidok. The carving pattern consists of these elements, zaglublennyh in a plane top downwards. The carving is conducted in the same sequence, as described above, but in this case a cutting torch deepen on 4-5 mm at an angle 40-50° and then separate cut out piramidki from a plane.
Components of a figured carving are as well skobchatye dredging, so-called nails. For their reception use semicircular chisels with width of an edge from 5 to 12 mm.
The Planimetric carving differs from other ways deepening of lines of an ornament in relation to a background surface. Clearness and brightness of drawing is frequently underlined tonirovannym by a background. Carry out such carving a knife-jamb, a scalpel or a chisel-corner.
A Plane intended for an ornament by a carving, preliminary grind and paint over, varnish and if it is necessary, polish. The drawing put on a plane cut a narrow line in two steps. At first cut a line from a drawing outer side, and then with internal with a knife inclination to the middle. Thus it is necessary to watch that edges have not been damaged. Sometimes a planimetric carving fill with a varnish with a bronze powder, toniruja thus a background in dark colours.
In certain cases flutes of planimetric drawing zaovalivajut. Such carving carry out chisels and in flocks. If the ornament consists of set of the concave and convex lines, a facet remove semicircular chisels.
High decorative qualities the carving with the picked up background possesses. It differs that relief drawing acts from a background which can be smooth, rough, hilly, etc. A background select, cut off and smooth down chisels, and the invoice process punches.
The Relief carving differs from previous higher relief reaching 5-6 mm. At such relief the ornament form is better comes to light, there is a treatment of light and shade. For this carving wood of average density - a birch, an oak, a nut, a beech most of all approaches. Though it difficultly gives in to processing, but allows to receive more accurate relief. Besides, these breeds are well ground. A surface of the product decorated with a carving, varnish.
Openwork the carving is long since applied by national masters to an ornament of separate parts of a building: platbands of windows and doors, face boards, etc. Presently it continue to use for an ornament of rural apartment houses, country houses, arbours, etc.
At an openwork carving the background is absolutely cleaned, cut through, therefore it sometimes name propilnoj.
The Openwork carving carry out on wood of a linden, a birch, an alder, a maple and some other breeds. A thickness of boards takes usually 15-25 mm.
For performance of an openwork carving use plotnitskie and joiner's tools. Large apertures for has spent on drink drill rotation, small - a drill.
Figured apertures in boards saw through vykruzhnymi luchkovymi saws with width of a cloth from 4 to 15 mm. For cutting out of internal apertures use saws-nozhovki with narrow cloths in the form of wedges. A thickness of cloths of a saw 1,5, length 325-530, width at the handle of 20-40 mm.
After fair scraps of a contour of drawing study an ornament - cut off a facet, correct the chopped off edges, etc.
It is necessary to notice that without preliminary tests on separate plates to start registration of any product it is not necessary, as it can lead to its damage. Stated above the recommendation supply only initial information on an art carving. Therefore, wishing to achieve success in this kind of artworks it is necessary to get acquainted with the special literature.