For preparation of paints in house conditions it is necessary to have all components, namely: binding, a pigment and napolnitel.
Binding . Liquid glass represents a dense liquid of yellowish or zheltovato-brown colour. On structure are solutions of silicate of sodium and kalija. At painting works it is used kalievoe liquid glass.
Glues happen animal, synthetic and vegetative. Animals are made of production wastes meat and a fishing industry by processing of bones, skins, etc. Depending on initial raw materials glue happens bone, mezdrovyj and fish.
Bone and mezdrovyj glues arrive in the form of tiles, granules, cheshuek or studnja. Colour of glue - from yellow to brown.
The Fish glue is characterised bolshej by gluing ability and quality, than other glues. It is issued in the form of a powder or plates of light-cream colour. For painting works the fish glue is used seldom, mainly at lists.
As the binding apply also kazeinovyj glue which receive from technical acid casein, to exhaust, copper kuporosa and other materials. On appearance it is a powder of grey colour. It let out various marks: "+ёюс№щ" "¦ъё=Ёр" "+с№ъэютхээ№щ".
Synthetic glues concern glue KMTS and PVA. KMTS well mixes up with pigments, without changing their colour, and also with starch, gelatin, oil, dekstrinom.
As a part of not water paints binding drying oils more often serve. They happen natural, condensed and synthetic.
Drying oils for preparation and razbavlenija oil paints, reception of first coats, shpatlevok, processings of a tree, plaster, metal details and other surfaces Are used.
Full drying of drying oil occurs for 24 ch. It is necessary to give preference to natural drying oil which is characterised bolshej by durability and durability.
Pigments is tonkoizmelchennye colour poroshkoobraznye materials of a mineral or organic origin. They are not dissolved in water, drying oil, glues, etc., and are in them in a suspension.
Napolniteli - tonkoiemelchennye insoluble poroshkoobraznye materials, more often the white colour, added in paints for giving of durability by it. Such materials concern them, as ground sand, talc, kaolin, some ground stone breeds, etc.
At performance of painting works necessarily be required also various auxiliary materials. They are necessary for preparation painting, shpatlevochnyh and priming structures. These are such as copper kuporos, soap, hydrochloric acid, soda, alum, and also various solvents.
Copper kuporos it is applied to ground preparation under glutinous colouring; it is possible to use also kuporos the iron. Soap economic add in first coats, shpaklevki; hydrochloric acid use for removal of an old paint and a rust, and soda kausticheskuju - for removal of old oil paints and varnish coverings.
Alum aluminium is applied to preparation shpatlevok and first coats under water paints, and also in limy kolerah.
Table salt is necessary for reception of limy colourful structures, and wax or paraffin - for manufacturing matte kolerov.
At work with paints almost always there is a necessity to dilute them to the necessary consistence. For this purpose drying oils, varnishes, oksoli and ratvoriteli are used. Unlike thinners which dilute a paint and promote creation of a uniform film, solvents are dissolved in varnishes and paints, and then disappear, weakening in some measure a colourful covering. Them concern turpentine, uajt-spirit or the gasoline, used for razbavlenija oil colourful structures; butilatsetat and acetone for dissolution of nitropaints, and also special solvents for synthetic paints and the enamels, going on sale in a kind ready to the use.
Many solvents for the most widespread kinds of paints Are issued. Here some of them.
Solvents 645, 646 and 648 - for paint and varnish materials. On appearance are colourless or slightly yellowish transparent liquids. Solvent 645 is intended for razbavlenija nitroenamels, nitrovarnishes, nitroshpaklevok; 646 for nitrovarnishes both nitroshpaklevok a general purpose and epoksidnyh enamels; 648 - for smoothing of scratches after grinding of a nitrovarnish film.
Solvents of marks Р-4, Р-4А, Р-5А, Р-12, Р-24 represent transparent colourless or slightly yellowish liquids. Are intended for razbavlenija perhlorvini-lovyh, epoksidnyh, poliakrilovyh and other paint and varnish materials.
To removal of the hardened paint and varnish coverings apply smyvki. The joint ventures-7 concern them SD, АФТ-1.
For acceleration of drying (hardening) of oil varnishes and paints use sikkativy - powders and the liquid substances added in ready paints. Them let out marks НФ-1, НФ-2, НФ-3.
At polishing proshpaklevannoj surfaces apply natural or artificial pumice, and also grinding skins which happen paper, paper waterproof, fabric, fabric waterproof.