For plotnichnyh and joiner's works as the basic material wood is. Without ability to distinguish tree species one from another, without knowledge of the basic properties of forest products performance of these works is impossible.
In building apply coniferous and deciduous tree species. Coniferous use for manufacturing of designs, and also as a basis at pasting of details by an interline interval from valuable breeds of wood more often.
The pine, a fur-tree and a larch concern coniferous breeds. The pine is most extended. It differs soft wood of flesh-coloured colour, high building-technical properties. Products from a pine stick well together, varnished, however are badly ground and painted.
Fur-tree Wood is very similar on the qualities to pine wood, but contains less than resinous substances that does its more subject to rotting and limits application.
The Larch has firm and strong wood with the big maintenance of resinous substances. However it is applied more often in northern areas of the country.
Such deciduous breeds as an oak, an ash-tree and others, having firm wood, use for manufacturing of details of bearing designs - nagelej, shponok, etc., breeds with soft wood-aspen, a poplar, an alder, a linden - for manufacturing of doors, platbands, plinths etc. Wood of a pine, a fur-tree, a fir, a birch, a beech, an alder and an oak serves in joiner's manufacture by the basic material.
Oak Wood is strong and durable, has light brown colour, is well processed, however at drying on it there can be cracks. An oak apply to parquet and plywood manufacturing, use for facing of panels of walls, manufacturing of platbands, plinths etc.
At an elm also strong, elastic and heavy wood; more often it use for manufacturing of plywood and joiner's products. The aspen, unlike an oak and an elm, possesses soft and easy wood. It is not jarred on and a little rastreskivaetsja at drying, well processed. It is necessary to carry it to aspen lacks zagnivaemost in the conditions of the raised humidity.
Ash-tree Wood is strong, viscous, is difficultly processed manually, at drying it is not enough rastreskivaetsja. The alder, on the contrary, is processed easily. Its wood it is possible to simulate mahogany.
The Birch differs dense homogeneous wood of white-pink colour, well is processed and gets off. However, as well as the aspen, it rots and is jarred on in the conditions of the raised humidity. Thanks to high decorative qualities a birch use for obverse elements of furniture and furnish of fragments of premises with the subsequent covering a transparent varnish.
The Beech concerns breeds with firm wood of white colour with a reddish shade. It is well processed, bent and tinted. Nevertheless the beech has a number of lacks to which it is necessary to carry its susceptibility korobleniju and to rotting in the conditions of the raised humidity. Use a beech more often for manufacturing of a parquet, plywood, shtapikov. For protection against a product moisture it is necessary to varnish.
Materials from the wood, going on sale, share on round and pilenye.
Round forest products depending on a thickness can be small, average and large. The thickness of small forest products makes 60-130 mm for coniferous breeds and 80-130 for deciduous (with gradation of 10 mm), average - 140-240 and large - 260 mm and more (with gradation of 20 mm).
The Length of round forest products reaches 4 m and more.
Saw-timbers include boards, plates, bars, gorbyli. They can be edging, not edging and odnostoronne edging (fig. 1).
Edging materials are sawn through from different directions, at not edging edges - partially are sawn through only plasti, and. At odnostoronne edging are sawn through plasti and one edge. The last cut from deciduous breeds.
Saw-timbers from firm deciduous breeds produce in the length 0,5-6,5 m with gradation of 0,1 m; from soft deciduous breeds and a birch - length 0,5-2 with gradation 0,1, and at length 2-6,5 m-s gradation of 0,25 m. the Thickness of deciduous saw-timbers 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 32, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100 mm, width (edging) 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 130, 150, 180, 200 mm. The length of coniferous saw-timbers makes 1-6,5 m with gradation of 0,25 m.
The Thickness and width of bars should be not less than 100 mm. In general all saw-timbers have width of cross-section section of more double thickness (except bars).
Nails depending on appointment are subdivided on building, tolevye, roofing, finishing and obojnye.
a Fig. 1. Kinds of saw-timbers :
And - not edging board with sharp obzolom; - a board with stupid obzolom; in - an edging board; g - a bar chistoobreznoj; d - a bar with obzolom; e - gorbyl; - a quarter timber; 3 - a cross tie (lezhen); and - a plate
Screws let out with a semicircular, secret and semisecret head. The weight 1000 pieces of screws with semicircular and semisecret heads differs from resulted below values in the big party accordingly in 1,3 and 1,1 times (factors averaged and are resulted only for rough calculation at purchase of screws).