For plaster performance sgraffito the same materials, as for usual and decorative plasters are used. But most of all it is required to exhaust (the limy test), sand and shchelochestojkih pigments.
At manufacturing of decorative products from plaster, except clay it is necessary to get plasticine, various glues, formoplast, lubricant structures, materials for reinforcing.
As a rule, use plaster of marks Г-5 - Г-25 a high milling. It should be svezheobozhzhennym, white on colour, without impurity of sand and packed pieces. The beginning shvatyvanija should come not earlier than through 6 mines, and the end - not later than through 30 mines from the moment of it zatvorenija water.
For a plastering structure of a plaster solution select, as a rule, by practical consideration. Practice shows that the water plaster relation for the test of normal density should be 0,7; dense - 0,5; liquid - 1. It means that for reception of a plaster solution of normal density on 1 l of water take about 1,5 kg, for dense - 2, and for liquid - 1 kg of plaster.
Make models of fat clay which contains a small amount of sand and other impurity and keeps plasticity throughout long time, does not stick to hands at a moulding of forms. If in structure the sand significant amount, clay can be cleared otmuchivaniem. For this purpose it carefully mix with water before reception smetanoobraznoj weights and allow to settle. Thus sand drops out in a deposit, and otmuchennuju clay select and dry to necessary plasticity.
For manufacturing of models for small products with a thin ornament use plasticine. Unlike clay it keeps the plasticity almost unlimited term.
That forms acted in film from models is easier, apply mezdrovyj glue, technical gelatin, and also formoplast. Properties of various glues were described in section " Painting Ёрсю=№". Technical gelatin before the use presoak in cold water during 10-20 mines before full swelling, then cook during 1,5 ch.
Formoplast produce on the basis of PVC pitch, stearata calcium, dibutilftalata and kastorovogo oils. It represents the jellylike weight of dark yellow colour softened at temperature 55-60°Р.
That the model well separated from the form, use the various fatty greasings more often prepared from a mix of stearin with kerosene. For reception of such greasing of stearin of 1 kg rasplavljajut on pair, in this rasplav pour in 2,5 l of kerosene, constantly mixing before formation of uniformity of a mix (before pouring in kerosene, a vessel with stearin together with a water bath remove from fire and place on considerable distance from it). After cooling the mix gets whitish colour and a vaseline consistence.
It is possible to use as well other greasing consisting from 1 kg of stearin, 0,75 l of mineral oil and 0,75 l of kerosene. As greasings apply, except that, technical vaseline, emulsii mineral oil, soapsuds.
That the product was strong and kept the form, apply armature, a various wire, mesh fabrics, fibrous materials, etc. At an armature choice it is necessary to consider, first of all, possibility of its corrosion. Therefore a wire is better to use aluminium, steel zinced or steel, preliminary covered with a varnish.
The Stained-glass window in house conditions can be made of pieces of colour glass and silicate or epoksidnogo glue. More simple stained-glass window can be made of a cardboard, a tracing-paper and oil paints or a colour polymeric film.
For artworks on a tree the birch, an oak, a maple, an ash-tree, a pear, a linden, a beech, an alder, a pine, a chestnut, a black rosewood and others can be used. Decorative qualities of wood depend on a structure - natural drawing, colour and shine on a cut plane. In each specific case at performance of is art-decorative works the master himself selects the piece of wood necessary to it, plywood or an interline interval. Nevertheless, it is necessary to know that for woodcarving soft breeds - a linden, a birch, an aspen, an alder, a pear, a maple are most suitable.
For performance of mosaic works it is possible to find almost all basic warm and cold shades in a natural colour palette of wood.
Wood for an art carving is necessary for drying up well within several months. Dry it on air, in a shade, in the presence of through airing. The small amount of boards can be dried on a balcony, and lengthy preparations - in a court yard under a canopy. They are stacked on wooden bruski or bricks on distance by of 40-50 sm from the earth, the distance from a balcony plate can be much less.
Boards put one over another on cross-section dry rejki so that between edges there were through vertical gleams. After board drying transfer to a premise and put far away from heating. That end faces of boards not rastreskivalis, them zabelivajut a chalk solution to exhaust or paint over a paint. Dry boards bolshej lengths, than it is required for work with the account scraps of the cracked ends.
To prepare an interline interval for bleaching and dyeing, uajt-spirit or turpentine, and technical acetone, gasoline will be necessary for bleaching - water solutions shchavelevoj acids, chloric to exhaust, hydrogen peroxides.
At wood dyeing apply dyes natural and synthetic. Basically it poroshkoobraznye the mixes dissolved in water, turpentine or spirit. Natural dyes concern bejtsy and morilki. To dyeing apply also prograsses which prepare on the basis of salts of metals - iron kuporos, chloric iron, bichromate kalija.
To Stick together wood and an interline interval it is possible bone, polivinilatsetatnym, nitrocellulose and other glues.
For furnish of art products from a tree use various varnishes and polishes.
The Greatest distribution have received shellachnye varnishes. They quickly dry (no more than 2 and form legkopolirujushchiesja coverings. However apply also oil and the nitrovarnishes of cold drawing including НЦ-218, НЦ-221, НЦ-222, НЦ-930.