Ceramic tiles are subdivided into tiles for internal furnish of walls, for floors and external facing. Except ceramic, by the industry are issued also glass facing and tiles from polymeric materials - podistirolnye, polyvinylchloride, etc. Near to deposits of a natural stone for external facing of separate elements of the house use plates from a natural stone - limestone, a tufa and other breeds. Builders in some cases apply also facing plates from concrete, plaster and other materials.
Ceramic glazurovannye tiles for internal facings are intended for application in premises which are not exposed to influence of a frost and other atmospheric factors. In opposite sluchav tiles lose the qualities in the first years of operation. Is better to use them for facing of bathrooms, per capita, toilets, kitchens, working zones round washstands and kitchen tables, etc. In these conditions ceramic glazurovannye tiles are aesthetic, practical and durable, easily wash water.
Ceramic glazurovannye tiles for internal facing of walls let out the various form. Tiles in the sizes 150Х150Х (5-6), 200X200X (5-6) mm and 100Х100Х (5-6) mm are most extended. Squared tiles in the sizes 200X150; 200Х100; 150Х100; 150X75; 150X25 in the thickness of 6-8 mm are issued seldom. Are produced, except that, shaped angular and karniznye tiles.
The Back party of tiles for internal facing has riflenija for the best coupling with a solution.
Glass tiles make in the size 120X65X5, 150X150X6, 250X140X8 mm. The assortment and colour scale of tiles are insignificant.
For external facings of walls are applied front ceramic and glass tiles. Them let out square and rectangular the various sizes (tab. 14). On the back party of tiles for reliable coupling with a solution are provided riflenija, cambers or grooves.
Some enterprises produce rugs from melkorazmernyh the ceramic tiles pasted on a kraft-paper.
Glass tiles for facing of facades also are issued in the form of carpets. Tiles in the size 22Х22Х (4-5) mm from opaque (glushennogo) white and colour glass have a smooth, corrugated (matte) or brilliant surface. Let out also large tiles of the various sizes from opaque glass of black and green colours with brilliant poured impregnations on a surface and in weight ("ьрЁсыш=").
Make also polistirolnye tiles: square - 100Х 100X1,25, 150X150X1,35 mm and frizovye rectangular - 100X20X1,25, 150X20X1,35 and 150X50X1,35 mm.
For the device of floors the special ceramic tiles serve in premises with damp processes, different as high density and the big resistance to istiraniju. Them let out the various form - square, rectangular, triangular, shestigrannye, octahedral, and also halves for drawing up of a demanded pattern. The size of tiles 150X150X13, 100Х100Х10, 80Х80Х10, 50Х50Х10, 150X74X13 mm and others.
They happen to a smooth and corrugated obverse surface, one-colour (natural colour of clay or painted), multi-colour or figured. The back party of a tile has riflenija for its reliable coupling with a cement mortal.
For a floor covering in premises with damp processes, on open terraces etc. Can be used shlakositallovye plates. They possess the raised durability, chemical firmness, high wear resistance. The surface shlakositalla can be raw, polished, and also covered with ceramic paints. Shlakositallovye plates let out in the size from 100Х100 to 500Х Х500 mm in the thickness of 6-25 mm.
Plates from an artificial stone are plates from concrete, plaster, steklotsementa.
Facing plates from decorative concrete happen factory manufacturing, but they can be made and most.
Plates for facing of internal walls can be made of concrete of mark 50, for external walls - 100. For coverings plates of the floor maintained in atmospheric conditions, or sites of domestic manor it is necessary to apply concrete of marks 100-150.
For concrete preparation manually it is necessary to make a board of boards and to lay it on the equal basis or linings from bruskov. The board surface should be equal, without cracks and acting boards.
In the beginning on a board pour out sand and gravel which carefully mix. It is necessary to remember that peschano-gravijnaja the mix should contain grains of various fraction. Thanks to that emptiness between grains of large fraction are filled with grains small, concrete turns out more dense and strong. Then in a mix add cement and mix with peschano-gravijnoj a mix before reception of homogeneous weight. A mix cautiously sprinkle water not to wash up cement, and again mix. Humidifying with the subsequent hashing should be repeated some times to necessary mobility.
Two working Mix a mix shovels. The received concrete is necessary for using within two hours.
For manufacturing of plates do wooden or metal forms of the necessary size. Before packing of concrete it is necessary to cover the form with fatty greasing. At filling of the form it is necessary to condense concrete well. For reception of relief plates on a form bottom stack a matrix from rubber, a tree, metal with any relief; an impressive surface receive, prisypav svezheulozhennyj concrete decorative stones of the identical form. If as a filler of a concrete mix the white or colour marble crumb serves, it can be bared, washout by the sprayed water an obverse layer svezheulozhennogo concrete. For this purpose it is necessary to put preliminary the form in inclined position at an angle 45°.
The Obverse surface of concrete plates can be processed also metal brushes in three-four days after concrete packing.
Plaster decorative plates produce from plaster knitting various kinds. They can be reinforced by fiber glass, steklosetkoj, a wire and other materials. A face sheet of plates as well as concrete, happens impressive or relief. Plates are issued by the sizes 300X300X20, 500X500X30 and 600X600X50 mm.
Plaster plates are simple for making in house conditions. Technology of their reception approximately same, as well as concrete. It is possible to prepare a plaster solution without napolnitelja (plaster: water) and with napolnitelem (for example, with sawdust).
Ready plates can be used for furnish of one of walls of the general room in the house.
Usual cement mortals are applied To facing by ceramic and glass tiles, first of all.
For fastening ceramic glazurovannyh tiles on a thin layer it is possible to use also polimertse-mentnuju mastic and mastic on the basis of glue KMTS.
Polimertsementnaja mastic prepares as follows. The cement-sandy mix in structure 1:8 on weight prepares, i.e. For preparation of a dry mix of 10 kg 1,2 1,3 kg of cement and 8,8-8,7 kg of sand undertake. Then 3 kg 50 of%-s' emulsii PVA dissolve in 1,6 l of water. Into the received solution at constant stirring enter a dry mix. It is necessary to remember that such mastic keeps gluing ability during 2,5-3 ch. If it starts to get denser, it is possible to dilute it with a solution emulsii PVA.
Mastic on the basis of glue KMTS prepares similarly: take 3 l of 3%-s' solutions of glue KMTS and fall asleep in it, constantly stirring slowly, a dry mix in the quantity specified earlier. Mastic on the basis of KMTS keeps gluing ability during 7 ch, and at zagustevanii is diluted with a water solution of glue.
The Same mastics can be used for facing by glass tiles. The greatest distribution for fastening glazurovannyh ceramic and polistirolnyh tiles was received by universal mastics. Mastics concern them "…ѕё=шыр=-¦" "Ршэ=хыръё" "+ѕьшыръё" "Р=шЁю-2¦".