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Materials and products for floors (ch. 2)

Mastics and glues, applied to gluing of tiled and rolled coverings of a floor, were described earlier in section "+=фхыър film and rolled ьр=хЁшрырьш".

Bezosnovnye polyvinylchloride linoleumy and tiles are glued by means of mastics КН-2 or КН-3. Linoleum on fabric and teplozvukoizoljatsionnoj bases is pasted by glue "…ѕё=шыр=-¦". Alkidnyj linoleum is glued on cold bitumen mastic "…шёъш". Nap carpet coverings on a synthetic film underlying cause glue on mastics КН-3 and "Ршэ=хыръё". For gluing "-юЁёюышэр" mastics КН-3, "¤юышэш=" are applied; "+ѕьшыръё" "Ршэ=хыръё" and others.

Materials and products from wood for a covering of floors are issued in the form of a piece parquet, parquet boards.

The Piece parquet produce from an oak, an ash-tree, a beech, a maple, an elm, a hornbeam, a chestnut, a birch and other breeds which are not conceding on the physicomechanical properties to wood of an oak. Parquet laths (klepki) do with skosom edges of the top layer (a deterioration layer) or without skosa. The thickness of laths makes 15 and 18 mm, width 30-90 (with an interval of 5 mm) and length 120-500 (with an interval of 50 mm). The parties of laths should be parallel and have on opposite edges on a crest and a groove for connection of laths with each other. From the same breeds of wood make also a mosaic parquet. It type in decorative carpets, connect among themselves from the back party an elastic film. Plancks collect in a square or in a rectangle, the size 400X400-600Х600 mm, and on an obverse surface of a carpet paste a layer of a protective paper which easily lags behind a mosaic parquet after impregnation by its water. Plancks for manufacturing of a carpet of a mosaic parquet let out in the length 100, 120, 150, 160 and 200 mm at width 20, 25, 30 and 40 mm.

Parquet boards, in turn, produce from wood of coniferous and deciduous breeds the two-layer: the top layer carry out from rectangular laths of wood of valuable breeds, and the bottom layer from strogannyh reek or bruskov wood of lower grades. Layers stick together among themselves waterproof glues.

The Parquet boards intended for packing on logs, let out in the thickness of 25 mm, and for packing on the continuous basis - thickness of 18 mm.

Plancks for an obverse layer produce in the length 150, 160 and 207 mm, width 20-50 and thickness of 6 mm. For connection of parquet boards among themselves grooves and crests also are provided.

The parquet Face sheet becomes covered by a waterproof varnish. Parquet boards also consist of an obverse layer and the basis. An obverse layer produce from laths specified above breeds of wood. The basis do in the form of frames from bruskov, from reek with an obverse layer of an interline interval, drevesnostruzhechnyh plates with an obverse layer from an interline interval and with two-layer reechnym the basis. Boards have the form of a square in the size 400Х400, 475X475, 600X600 and 800X800 mm. Elements of boards stick together among themselves waterproof glue, and the face sheet becomes covered by a transparent varnish. In edges of boards grooves for their connection among themselves by means of shponok and crests are provided.

To the device of floors apply also wood-fiber and drevesnostruzhechnye the plates which characteristic is resulted in section "+сышчютър by sheet materials and фхЁхтюь".

Natural stone materials in building use for a covering of floors in the form of plates which produce from a granite, sienita, diorita, marble and other breeds. However the production wastes received at sawing up of plates which technology of packing is resulted more low can be of interest for the device of floors at building of the individual house only.

The Separate enterprises produce decorative plates from a waste received by manufacture of facing plates from a natural stone. The sizes of such plates make 200-1500X200-1200 mm at a thickness of 10-40 mm. On a personal plot such tiles can be made most, having laid pieces of a stone a face sheet downwards in timberings from wooden reek and a gulf their cement-sandy solution of structure 1:3-4 or a concrete mix with a lining armaturnogo a skeleton from a wire. Manufacturing of concrete facing plates with rubble or gravel application is specified in section “Facing by tiles”. In the same section necessary data on the ceramic facing tiles used for a covering of floors are resulted.

As the waterproofing materials applied to protection of a design of a floor from influence of water at the device of floors in premises with vlazhnostnymi by processes, use roofing felt with sandy posypkoj (ТП-350), roofing material lining and with small mineral posypkoj (РП-250 or РМ-350), and also isol and gidroizol.

To a spreading layer (preparation) of a floor on a ground apply concrete. In the presence of dry gruntov the bases use glinobeton.

For reduction of the general heat conductivity of a floor by a ground, and also on overlappings of the apartments located over entrances, cellars, etc., apply a heat-insulation layer for which device use zasypki slag, keramzitom, etc. more often. Or plates from easy materials - cellular concrete, perlitovye plates, arbolit, fibrolit etc.

As the sound-proof layer interfering penetration of noise from located above premise, apply sand, perlit, vermikulit, porizovannye cement-sandy solutions and other easy porous materials.

For the device of a coupler which is a levelling layer on overlapping plates, for bias creation in floors and receptions of a rigid layer on nonrigid elements of a floor (teplozvukoizoljatsionnomu to a layer) use a cement-sandy solution more often.