For oshtukaturivanija internal surfaces of buildings apply solutions which structure includes knitting materials and fillers. Cement, plaster and clay concern the cores knitting izvest; to fillers - sand, slag, pumice.
Depending on a knitting, a part solution, plaster solutions happen limy, cement, plaster, clay and mixed. Short data on the cores knitting and the fillers recommended for preparation of plaster solutions are more low resulted.
Building izvest happens air and hydraulic. For plaster works in apartment premises it is used air izvest which hardens only on air. On appearance izvest last shares on komovuju and poroshkoobraznuju, and on ground (kipelka) and gidratnuju (pushonka). Komovaja izvest represents pieces of a stone of the grayish colour, ground - a thin grayish powder. Building air not slaked izvest (komovaja, ground) shares on three grades.
Izvest demands clearing for what it is necessary for placing in a box, to fill in with water and carefully to mix. Absorbing water, it starts to hiss and allocate steam, turning thus to limy milk. After water evaporation izvest gets density of the test.
In the course of clearing limy milk is necessary for filtering through a sieve with cells no more 2X2 mm.
The Considerable quantity to exhaust extinguish in special tvorilnoj to the hole depth of 1,5-2 m sheathed by boards in which is located about one ton to exhaust. Over a hole establish a wooden box in the size 1,5X2X0,5 m. In the box bottom do an aperture with a latch on which the grid with small cells is from the inside attached.
Izvest place in a box at the closed latch and fill in with water to half nasypannogo a layer. At occurrence of water steams and destruction of pieces to exhaust her carefully mix. Then the received dough dilute with water and again mix before reception of homogeneous limy milk. After that open a latch and merge milk in a hole through an aperture with a grid. To avoid dutikov in a solution, to apply slaked izvest follows only after three-week endurance.
Cements - the most widespread knitting for the plaster solutions, plasters providing the greatest durability. By the industry is issued portlandtsement, shlakoportlandtsement, putstsolanovyj portlandtsement and their versions.
Portlandtsement - the basic and most widespread hydraulic knitting material. On appearance is tonkomolotyj a powder of various shades. Primary colour portlandtsementa - glaucous. White portlandtsement apply to decorative plasters.
Plaster - the white powder quickly seizing at zatvorenii by water and received by thermal processing and razmalyvanija of a natural plaster stone.
Clay - natural knitting which grain structure is rather various. In the nature containing various impurity - quartz and polevoshpatnyj sand, oksidy iron and manganese, organic substances and so forth, giving to clay various colouring are most extended the clay. Extraneous impurity in clay is better to delete, having dissolved it to a liquid state and filtering through a sieve. After upholding clay suits to the use.
For formation of a strong stone on the basis of knitting into a solution enter fillers - sand, rubble, gravel.
Sand happens river, mountain, ovrazhnym and sea. The size of its grains fluctuates from 0,15 to 5 mm in diameter. In sand there can be impurity pylevidnyh and clay particles, and also fragments of rocks. Therefore the polluted sand before use should be sifted, and sometimes and to wash out. It is necessary to consider also that in sand for solutions presence of grains of gravel in the size from 5 to 10 mm is supposed in rather limited quantity.
Rubble from the natural stone, received by crushing of rocks, on krupnosti grains is subdivided into fractions: 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-70 mm. Depending on strength at compression of initial rock in the condition sated with water rubble differs also on marks - from 200 to 1200.
Rubble happens also slag, from brick or ceramic fight. At use for its decorative plasters it is necessary to sift carefully through a large sieve.
The colour crumbs received by crushing of marble, a granite, limestone are most preferable To painting and decorating.
Gravel represents friable breed from nestsementirovannyh okatannyh fragments of rocks in the size of 5-7 mm, is subdivided into marks to similarly rubble from a natural stone.
Pumice - easy porous breed of light grey colour in which to 80% of volume occupy a time. It represents the volcanic glass formed at fast cooling of a lava on air. Pumice is used instead of rubble and sand for manufacturing of easy concrete.
Volcanic slags is the basalt lava thrown out from volcanoes, podvergshajasja then to fast cooling on air. They represent strongly porous, porous oblomochnuju breed of all shades of red and black colours. The sizes of fragments reach 20-30 sm and more. It is applied instead of rubble to manufacturing of easy concrete.
Mica is used in small amounts for addition in decorative plasters. It enter into those solutions in which fillers do not give crystal shine. Instead of mica sometimes add beaten glass in the size-6 mm.
Pigments (dry inks) apply to reception of colour solutions. For these purposes select only shcheloche - and svetostojkie pigments with good painting ability. Such pigments concern: ohra, gives colour from light yellow to the brown; umbra natural - brown with a greenish shade; umbra zhzhenaja-dark brown with a reddish shade; minium iron - brown-red; a mummy natural - red; manganese dioxide - black (with a brown shade); graphite - dark grey; oksid chrome - dark green; soot gas - black.
The Builder or the house master in some cases should define quality of the got materials. Far not everyone is able to do it in vitro. Therefore we recommend to take advantage of the practical advice of experts based on long-term experience. For example, cement loses activity approximately on 5% a month, and within two years it can decrease for 30-40%. Qualitative cement should not have signs okomkovanija. If such cement to take in a fist and to compress, it at once "т№=хёх=" between fingers. If in a hand there are lumps in size with a pea and more, it testifies that in cement process of formation of lumps has begun. Such cement, obviously, long time was stored and, hence, is characterised by the lowered durability.
Sand should be pure, without impurity of the earth, a dust and clay. To define cleanliness of sand, it is necessary to type it in a palm: the good clean sand does not spoil hands.
Plaster also loses the durability in the course of long storage. Svezheizgotovlennyj plaster should not have lumps, the same as also cement. To distinguish plaster from a chalk, a powder it is necessary poteret in hands: the chalk will seem soft, and plaster - granular. Other reception is well-known: from a powder moistened with water, skatyvajut a ball, also 10 minutes maintain it approximately. The ball from plaster will harden quickly.
For quality definition to exhaust the small amount of the solution consisting of 1 part on weight of the limy test, three parts of sand and water get mixed up. Then on this solution spread a column from eight clay corpulent bricks, stacking them against each other.
Through a quarter of days a column cautiously lift for the top brick: if it does not collapse, means izvest is suitable for work.