At a choice and acquisition of the paints ready to the use, it is necessary to understand their marks which by means of letters and figures designate appointment and the basic properties.
In a designation of a paint and varnish material are specified its name (a paint, a first coat, shpatlevka), core type plenkoobrazovatelja, material appointment, a serial number, appropriated to a paint and varnish material, and its colour. For example "¦ьрыі ПФ-115 схыр ". Apparently from the resulted example, the kind of a paint and varnish material is designated by a word - a paint, enamel, a first coat, shpatlevka.
The First group of signs - core type plenkoobrazovatelja (binding) is designated by two initial letters of its name. For example Bt-bitumen; GF - gliftalevye; KF - kanifolnye; TO - kremnijorganicheskie; MA - oil; ML - melaminovye; NTS - nitrocellulose; HV - per-hlorvinilovye; VA - polivinilatsetatnye; FL - phenolic; EP - epoksidnye; NP - petropolymeric etc. In our example PF - pentaftalevye. The second group of signs - appointment of a material and registration number in the form of a digital designation are deciphered as follows: the first figure - first coats and oil pastes - 0, paints weatherproof: - 1, for internal works - 2, for konservatsionnyh coverings (protection against corrosion) - 3; waterproof - 4, special - 5, maslobenzostojkie - 6, chemically proof - 7, heat-resistant - 8, elektroizoljatsionnye - 9. The exception makes a designation shpatlevki - 00. Following figures - one, two or three designate a serial number, appropriated to the given material bodies of the state registration. In the example resulted above the first figure - 1 means that the paint intends for external works, and two the subsequent 15 - serial registration number.
After number, appropriated to a material, it is supposed to add also the alphabetic index characterising some features of a material. For example, gs - hot drying, hs - cold drying, pm - semimatte, etc.
Colour of a material is designated by a full word - blue, yellow etc.
At purchase of paints the special attention is necessary for turning, it is intended for what works - external or internal. The short characteristic of some paint and varnish materials is more low resulted.
Water diluted paints basically are issued in the form of dry mixes (half-finished products) which directly ahead of the use plant with water. Plenkoobrazovatelem (binding) various water-soluble glues depending on which paints have received the name serve in such paints: silicate, cement, polimertsementnye, vodoemulsionnye, on animal and vegetative glues.
Silicate paints are intended for external and internal furnish of the brick, concrete and plastered surfaces. They are used and for protection of wood against ignition. Paints of various colours are issued.
Cement paints weatherproof; them apply to external furnish of stone, brick, concrete, plastered and other porous surfaces. The dry mix consisting of white cement with shchelochestojkimi by pigments and some additives, before application plant with water. The assortment shchelochestojkih pigments is limited, therefore the colour scale of such paints is rather insignificant.
Polimertsementnye of a paint are intended for colouring external and internal concrete, brick, asbes-totsementnyh and the plastered surfaces, wood-fiber plates, and also ferro-concrete surfaces, Colour - white, bezhevo-pink, terracotta, light green, blue, grey, yellow.
Vodoemulsionnye of a paint for internal works use at colouring of wood, a cardboard and other porous materials, the grounded surfaces of metal, and also old coverings; they however should not be applied in premises with the raised humidity. On a surface them put a brush, the platen or kraskoraspylitelem. Vodoemulsionnye paints let out ready to the use: Э-ВА-27, Э-ВА-27А - on a basis polivinilatsetatnoj dispersions; Э-КЧ-26, Э-КЧ-26А - on a basis latex styrene-butadienovogo. Depending on mark colour of paints can be various. After paint drying give an equal, homogeneous matte film. Paints on a basis are not recommended to be applied latex styrene-butadienovogo to wood colouring.
Vodoemulsionnymi paints for external works paint brick, concrete, plastered, wooden and other surfaces. Them put at temperature not more low 8°Р. The industry lets out paints on a various polymeric basis and various colours.
In enough limited quantities are still made kazeinovye paints in the form of dry poroshkoobraznyh half-finished products. Them it is possible to paint any surfaces in premises.
For manufacturing of whitewashing and paints on animal and vegetative glues in sale dry mixes under various names arrive: "-хъюЁр=штэ№х dry ъЁрёъш" "¤юсхыър ьры Ёэр " "Рѕ§шх ъЁрёъш" etc. their structure includes a chalk and a pigment.