At registration of a facade of an individual apartment house and domestic constructions on manor it is possible to use plaster sgraffito. Often it apply to manufacturing of decorative inserts, the index of number of the house, etc.
"РуЁр¶¶ш=ю" in a translation from Italian means "т№чрЁрярээ№щ". It represents a kind of is art-decorative plaster which receive soskablivaniem (protsarapyvaniem) thin layers of specially put colour plaster for reception siluetnyh two - three- or multi-colour drawings.
Work on plaster manufacturing sgraffito consists of preparation of the basis, drawing of a ground, colour preparation, colour nakryvochnyh layers, a contour of drawing and vytsarapyvanija drawing (fig. 56).
Preparation of the basis and ground drawing are made on the same technology, as usual plaster (" Plaster Ёрсю=№"). A wall surface clear of pollution, notch or beat out seams, wash out and put a ground. After some keeping it scratch grooves for the best coupling with nakryvochnymi layers, moisten and put colour preparation by thickness of 7-8 mm. Through 20-30 mines as soon as it will dry up and will seize, put the second layer and after careful alignment - the third. It also level and rub clean. Last layer put a brush more often, sometimes smoothing down kelmoj. The general thickness nakryvochnyh layers should not exceed a thickness nakryvochnogo a plaster coat of a facade of the house. Plaster sgraffito can be tonkoslojnoj (a thickness no more than 1 mm) and plaster (2-6 mm).
a Fig. 56. Sequence of operations at plaster performance sgraffito :
And - drawing of the bottom layer; - drawing of the top layer; in - transfer of drawing from a cliche priporashivaniem; g - a dot contour of drawing after cliche removal; d - a ready ornament
Solutions for nakryvochnyh layers are better for using limy with application mineral shcheloche - and svetoustojchivyh pigments. Napolniteljami quartz sand, a small crumb and sand of colour stone breeds, stone powder, a powder droblenogo a red brick and other materials can serve. Sand for nakryvochnyh layers should be small, fractions of 0,15-0,6 mm, and for the top layers - less than 0,15 mm.
After drawing nakryvochnyh layers start prompting of a contour of drawing. For this purpose in the beginning make a so-called cardboard on which in the natural size drawing or a cliche if ornamental drawing with repeating rapportom is supposed to do is represented. For cardboard manufacturing it is necessary to stick together the sheet equal to overall dimensions of the future drawing from pieces of a dense paper. Drawing on a paper should be lined on cages and in the same way to line sheet of the future cardboard. Then on cages pererisovyvajut drawing on the sheet prepared for a cardboard, and drawing contours is pinned shilom or a nail with an interval by of 15-20 mm. A cliche, unlike a cardboard, make on a fragment (rapport) the drawing repeating many times. Because the cliche will be repeatedly used, it should be strengthened, having impregnated with drying oil and having dried under sheet of plywood with cargo. From a cardboard and a cliche drawing transfer on a wall the reception described in section " Painting Ёрсю=№" - priporohom, i.e. By means of a gauze tampon with a pigment which strike in places of headdresses. Vytsarapyvajut (scratch out) nakryvochnye layers a knife, a scalpel, and also special cutters on a damp and soft solution not later 5-6 ch after their drawing.
If the surface sgraffito big nakryvochnye it is better to put layers the sites calculated for one day of work, otherwise to work with the hardened solution it will be very difficult. In the beginning a drawing contour cut a cutter, holding it in the right hand with an inclination 60° to a plaster surface, and then in the cut contour choose a solution skoblilkami. The cut form, depending on requirements of drawing and a thickness of a layer, can be direct or cut. It is better to do the bottom cuts of drawing cut as it will promote sduvaniju from them a wind of a settling dust.
If it is necessary to receive the three-coloured ornament including, for example, green, red and dark blue colours on a house facade, it is necessary to put three colour plaster coats, each of which is painted in the set colour, and the fourth layer - background. Then on a contour cut and vytsarapyvajut only the top layer to open all dark blue elements of drawing, further together the layer top and following it for disclosing of red elements of drawing and, at last, is cut by three top layers at once for disclosing of green elements.
Plaster sgraffito can be carried out and more simple way - on the templates made of various sheet materials (a cardboard, a tin, plywood, DVP, etc.) which thickness causes a thickness nakryvochnogo a layer. Drawing in this case can be acting or sinking down. Depending on it also cut out a set of templates.
That the template is easy for taking out from a solution and not to damage an edge svezheulozhennogo a layer, its edges on a drawing contour do with skosom. Besides, it is necessary to attach handles to a template.
We Will consider an example of manufacturing of number of the house from decorative plaster on a facade. The figure specifying number of the house, black colour is in a circle of yellow colour which, in turn, is located against a white square. On plywood sheet cut out a square with which help it is possible to receive a white background, then on the cut out square cut a fret saw a circle of a yellow background and, at last, in this circle cut out the necessary figure (fig. 57).
a Fig. 57. Manufacturing of a template of number of the house for decorative plaster
For number performance in nature in the beginning put a white square, then a yellow circle on its background and after that black figures. Drawing in this case will turn out relief, acting, i.e. Each subsequent colour will be above previous.
However it can be made and sinking down. For this purpose in the beginning use a template with square cut and put a plaster coat of black colour. Then in a plywood square a fret saw cut out figures (curve) and fix them on the square centre, and all free plane of a black square close a layer of a solution of yellow colour, having limited a square rejkami.
Then cut out a circle and stack it on a yellow square, and all other area round it fill with a white solution.
It is possible to make also forms and curves in such a manner that white, yellow and black colours will be in one plane, however thus it is necessary to maintain intervals at 30-40 mines at drawing various on colour of plaster layers.