While in service houses arise various damages of the plaster layer which reason can be the building deposit, poor executed plaster, mechanical damages, etc. As quite often reason of premature destruction of plaster the errors admitted by the house master serve. Them can be a little.
First of all, it is necessary to watch a correct and exact dosage of structures of solutions for plaster. For example, the lean solution in which lacks knitting, badly seizes with a wall surface, is showered, if it poteret by a hand, and the paint and wall-paper on it keep badly. Such plaster is short-lived, eventually it rastreskivaetsja and falls off. Presence of a considerable quantity knitting also causes rastreskivanie plasters.
The Accelerated drying of plaster negatively affects its quality. At level-by-level plaster it is necessary to give time for hardening of the bottom layer. It is impossible to dry plaster by means of heating devices, and in strongly heated premises and in its hot weather it is necessary to veil the humidified sacking as fast evaporation of a moisture does not promote qualitative tverdeniju a solution. In no event it is impossible to put plaster on the frozen wall because it too will lead it osypaniju.
Otslaivanie of a plaster layer can occur as well because it has been put on excessively dry surface or on the dried up layers before the put solution.
Sometimes on the plastered surface appear small bugorki which at pressing on them are easily showered, leaving a white or yellow speck. The reason of such phenomenon consists in application badly sustained to exhaust, containing small outstanding particles. Process of clearing of such particles occurs after plaster drawing. A unique way of elimination of this lack - clearing of such places and drawing of a new, qualitative solution.
At oshtukaturivanii a facade of the individual house on a surface stains that speaks various water-absorbing ability of materials of a wall - a clay brick, ferro-concrete crosspieces, a silicate brick are often formed. To avoid it, ferro-concrete elements before plaster close the materials identical to a material of a wall on water absorption - a tile, ceramic tiles.
The Fallen off and brought down places of plaster in dry premises repair a limy solution. If it is necessary, that the repaired surface hardened faster, directly ahead of application on six parts of a limy solution add one part of the plaster test (the plaster dough consists from 1 kg of plaster and 1,5 l of water).
Before repair the damaged place clear of unsteadily keeping parts and plaster which lags behind a wall at a lung postukivanii. From seams of the bared laying scrape out a solution on depth not less than 15 mm, then all damaged place carefully will sweep off. After that a laying and a part of plaster round it moisten with water, and then a liquid cement mortal. At time lack it is possible not to moisten a laying but then in a priming coat it is necessary to add cement.
On the hardened outlined ground put nakryvochnyj a layer which rub clean poluterkom, and joints with old plaster coat with a glutinous paint. Joints then smooth poluterkom, moving it from old plaster to new and rub clean a damp sponge (fig. 20).
The Damaged cement plaster repair in the same way, only with cement mortal application.
Repair of the damaged corners is better to do by a plaster solution which hardens faster. From the bared laying eliminate the solution rests, scrape out seams on depth of 2 sm, moisten with water and put plaster on one side of angle. After shvatyvanija to plaster attach a wet board so that its sawn-off shotgun was zapodlitso with old plaster. Then moisten with water and plaster other side of angle. Joints between old and new plaster rub clean poluterkom and a wet brush or a sponge.
Vysypanie of sand from a surface of new plaster occurs or at a lack of knitting substance or owing to drawing of a plaster solution on a surface dry or too heating up on the sun. Hair cracks on surface which are especially appreciable after a rain, are formed because that in a solution was too much knitting, i.e. It was too fat. If these cracks in time not to close up (it is possible limy milk) they can extend in due course under the influence of water freezing in them and to become the reason of more serious damages of plaster.
Fray plaster at insignificant damages of its surface. With that end in view put thin nakryvochnyj a layer which after zatirki closes all roughnesses and defects.
a Fig. 20. Repair of the damaged sites of plaster :
And - razrezka shpatelem; - an erasure by means of a chisel and a hammer; in - eadelka a solution of preliminary moistened surface; g - smoothing down by a damp sponge
Before peretirkoj it is necessary to clear a surface of wall-paper, paintings and nebela. Wall-paper breaks from a wall. Strongly pasted sites moisten with hot water and remove layers with the help shpatelja or a scraper. The paste which has remained on a surface also wash off water.
The Glutinous paint or nabel from a surface preliminary moistened with water, clean off scrapers or shpateljami. To clean off nabel it is necessary cautiously, easily pressing on shpatel or a scraper. Otherwise on a surface there can be traces from the tool, and also scratches which it is necessary shpaklevat. Or nabel it is possible to wash off a glutinous paint also water by means of a sponge or a rag. However thus it is necessary to accept all safety measures not to fill in a floor.
Peretirku do by separate sites. About 0,5 m of a surface moisten with water, on a grater impose a solution and put separate dabs on distance of 10-15 sm from each other. Then grater circular motions this site rub clean. If on a surface there are small bowls, on a grater add a solution and this place rub clean once again.
Cracks first of all clear away from weak collapsing edges. Thin cracks cut on depth to JU mm, wide for a thickness of a plaster layer.
For zadelki cracks the same solution by which plaster has been executed is applied. Small cracks can be closed up a plaster solution. After repair of cracks the damaged site fray.
Cracks in seams between ferro-concrete panels of overlapping clear away water and fill with a cement-sandy solution on fine-grained sand. A solution level poluterkom and rub clean a grater.
It is necessary to give Special attention to external plaster. It is necessary to start its repair at occurrence of the first, even the most insignificant defects - cracks, otsloeny. The further penetration of a moisture under a plaster layer leads to rotting drani or corrosion of a metal grid, to otslaivaniju from a brick and stone laying.
Safety of external furnish of the house is in direct dependence on a roof and drain condition. Therefore first of all it is necessary to eliminate the reasons causing strengthened humidifying of a wall - to repair water waste a trench, a pipe, a funnel, plum.
Water waste a trench and a pipe, for example, it is necessary to clear in due time of leaves, a dust, dust, etc., as they can be the main reason of humidifying of walls in rains. Besides, it leads fast rzhaveniju drain elements that also breaks a normal drain of water.
Sometimes, for the purpose of prevention of hit of leaves in a drainpipe over an aperture of its mouth establish a grid from a wire.
If the part of a plaster layer has lagged behind a wall, covered to lathing, it is necessary shpatelem, a chisel and a hammer to clear away the damaged site of plaster, to break off rotted through dran, and the lagged behind pieces not rotted through drani to fix nails. Then the cleared away site to wash out water, to lay, if it is necessary, the fallen out pieces of a heat-insulation layer (felt, glass wool) and to beat it from above new to lathing (it is possible a wire grid).
If the plaster part exfoliates from a brick wall, this site also clear away, in addition notch a bricklaying, deepen seams, well wash out and anew plaster.