That the painted surfaces were without stains, smooth and monophonic, they are necessary for preparing carefully: to close up cracks, to smooth down roughnesses, poshpatlevat surfaces of again plastered walls, to put a first coat etc.
Before colouring by glutinous structures the plastered, plaster and concrete surfaces first of all clear, smooth, cut cracks, ground, grease cracks and grind.
At clearing before the painted ceiling, first of all, delete old nabel. Small nabel it is possible to wash away hot water by means of a brush and a rag, the thick layer needs to be cleaned off a scraper in a dry kind or, preliminary having moistened with hot water, through 30-40 mines damp nabel to remove a scraper or shpatelem.
If on a ceiling surface there is a soot or rusty stains from korrodirujushchego metal or a faulty roof, they also need to be removed. The soot is washed off by 3%-s' solution of hydrochloric acid. If it does not help, stains paint over oil whitewash or a nitropaint of white colour. When stains anything cannot be removed, remove a plaster layer, having revealed thus a source of a leak and, as consequence, formation of stains. In such places it is necessary to provide a waterproofing or to deepen plaster namet.
The Listed operations are carried out as well at clearing of surfaces of walls. At work in an average part of a wall a scraper or shpatel move from right to left, and in bottom - from top to down. Clearing make with small pressing a scraper or shpatel.
After peretirki or removals nabela, and also after drawing of new plaster on a surface remain grains of sand, small treshchinki, roughnesses and traces from shpatelja or graters. Them smooth a piece of wood of coniferous breeds, a silicate brick or pumice. Definitively the surface should be smoothed out a small emery paper. For convenience in work in it it is necessary to wrap a piece of a board or bruska.
Cracks on a ceiling or walls it is necessary a corner shpatelja or a knife at first to cut on depth about 2 mm. SHpatel or a knife thus move along a crack with an inclination to a ceiling or a wall at an angle 45° at first on the one hand cracks, and then with another. After rasshivki cracks the surfaces intended for the subsequent operations on furnish, it is necessary to clear of a dust a brush, a brush or a vacuum cleaner and to close up podmazkoj on the basis of plaster and a chalk.
The Demanded quantity of water needs to be defined on a place as at a different thickness of a layer podmazki its consistence is various. Water can be in the cretaceous paste prepared in advance. The specified mix hardens during 15-20 mines, therefore it is better to prepare in the small portions. The increase in the maintenance of glue to 10% can prolong its term shvatyvanija till two o'clock.
For these purposes it is possible to use also lateksnuju shpatlevku.
Density shpatlevki can be regulated water. Similar shpatlevka is issued by the industry and goes on sale under the name "ИыюЁр". It contains lateksnyj glue and a chalk.
At podmazyvanii cracks shpatel hold the right hand so that two fingers supported the handle from below, and index and average - pressed it densely from above. Filled shpatlevkoj a crack smooth shpatelem, after drying grind and podgruntovyvajut.
The First coat put that the painted surface had homogeneous absorbing ability and on all area equally absorbed a moisture. The first coat forms a film which protects the subsequent finishing layers from losses of the glutinous making. At furnish without a first coat in places with bolshej porosity of a material of a wall or a ceiling paint absorption increases, and on the painted surface there are stains.
First coats under glutinous colouring can be kuporosnye, kvastsovye or mylovarnye. To prepare them it is possible in house conditions.
The first coat parts in three various enameled capacities Prepares: in the first capacity in 2 l of water cook preliminary presoaked animal glue, in the second - in 3 l of boiling water dissolve copper kuporos. In the third ware in 2 l of water - a laundry soap. In the received glutinous solution, at constant stirring, pour in soap, and then drying oil. Into a little cooled down mix enter a solution copper kuporosa, carefully mix and allow to cool down well. Before use add a chalk and water.
Kvastsovaja a first coat on the structure and technology of preparation is similar kuporosnoj, with that only a difference that into a mix instead of copper kuporosa enter 150 g aljuminievo-kalievyh the alum preliminary dissolved in three litres of boiling water.
For preparation mylovarnoj first coats 400 g presoak a glue stomach th in 4-5 l of water, to it add 400 g the laundry soap cut by small slices and warm up at hashing, without leading up to boiling. After that the received structure is diluted with water to volume of 10 l. Before the priming beginning it is necessary to note borders of glutinous colouring of walls if it is carried out not to the ceiling. For this purpose from top of walls measure the necessary distance and on all perimetre of a premise mark a cord, preliminary polished pigment. Horizontal position of the future line is better to check up water level.
The First coat of walls should be begun from noted line. A brush put to a wall and by smooth movement of a hand in a horizontal direction from left to right do otvodku wall top on the beaten off line. The first coat can be carried out the platen. For this purpose the platen lower in capacity with priming structure and wring out about the metal grid attached over capacity. It promotes uniform distribution of structure on the platen and removal of surpluses of a first coat from it. Then the platen put to a surface and prokatyvajut vertical movements from border otvodki above (at a wall first coat) or strips along light (at ogruntovke a ceiling). That the surface has been in regular intervals sated by structure, the platen with easy pressing the handle prokatyvajut in the same place two-three times.
Ogruntovku do by brushes as follows. a brush dip into priming structure and wring out about a wall of capacity for removal of surplus of a liquid. To put funtovku follows an equal layer, smooth movements, without leaving potekov a first coat and brush traces. To press a brush does not follow - it should concern a surface with the ends of hair. In the course of work the brush is necessary for turning round an axis that it in regular intervals wore out.
At priming of a ceiling the brush can be attached to the long handle.
In certain cases after podmazki cracks for reception of a quality surface it is necessary to do continuous shpatlevanie, grinding and secondary ogruntovku. Again plastered surfaces it is necessary shpatlevat.
For continuous shpatlevanija surfaces under glutinous paints are most suitable glutinous shpatlevki.
To Prepare shpatlevku it is very simple. Into 10%-s' solution of glue with soap enter drying oil. In the received mix add other water and mix before formation emulsii in which a thin stream, at constant stirring pour the sifted chalk to working density. On appearance shpatlevka should remind the friable dough.
For reception shpatlevki on vegetative glue prepare 5%-s' solution of paste from a flour or starch. In it pour in drying oil and all mix to a condition emulsii. In emulsiju add a chalk to working density. For 1 kg of a glutinous solution it is spent 30 g drying oils.
Shpatlevku can prepare also on a basis kuporosnoj or kvastsovoj the first coats which structure is resulted above. For this purpose 1 kg of a first coat mixes up with 150 g 10%-s' glutinous solutions. In the received mix at constant hashing the chalk before reception of working density is added.
It is possible to Apply also synthetic shpatlevku which consists from 1 kg of 5%-s' glues KMTS; 0,3-0,8 kg 50 of%-s' emulsii PVA; 0,5 kg of a laundry soap and 3 kg of well sifted chalk. For reception shpatlevki mix water solutions of glues and the soaps prepared in advance. In this mix in the small portions, at constant stirring, enter a chalk before reception of working density shpatlevki.
At continuous shpatlevanii structure put and level shpateljami: the first layer - wooden, and the subsequent - wooden or metal.
On a ceiling surface shpatlevku put an equal layer in the thickness of 1-1,5 mm; smooth its movements divergently. SHpatel it is necessary to hold to a surface of a ceiling with an inclination at an angle 60°. For convenience in work shpatlevku type from capacity narrow shpatelem and impose on wide shpatel on all width of an edge. SHpatlevku put movement "эр ёхс " along light direction.
On a wall surface shpatlevochnuju weight put a strip from top to down. SHpatel thus it is necessary to hold so that the strip left-hand side on 3-4 mm blocked already zashpatlevannuju earlier a surface at the left. It allows simultaneously with drawing shpatlevochnoj weights to level the platen which has remained from the previous strip shpatlevki at the right party of a cloth.
Zashpatlevannye of a surface of ceilings and walls after drying grind pumice and an emery paper.