wood Processing, as a rule, begin with pilenija. First of all cut off saw-timbers of the necessary size with an allowance on the further processing. Process pilenija is known to each house master, nevertheless not to the superfluous will remind some rules, allowing to avoid the errors leading to damage of a material or reception of a trauma. It is necessary to remember that a marking of details do on preliminary ostrogannym from different directions to boards or bruskam. Besides, for pilenija it is necessary to use only well ground tools. It will allow to save forces and to keep a valuable material. In order to avoid traumas it is necessary to watch that saw handles were without for-dirov and knots.
At pilenii the saw cloth should be at right angle to a plane of a sawn subject. Perpendicularity raspila check a square.
Sawing preparation, it is necessary to watch, that the sawn off part did not clamp a saw. For this purpose it is necessary to arrange correctly a product on a workbench. To avoid otslaivanija an obverse layer of plywood, the sheet should be made an incision a sharp knife under a ruler. Thus the saw should move strictly on a cut. For reception of curvilinear or shaped lines of sawing up use templates (fig. 5).
Manual pilenie - labour-consuming enough and unproductive operation. Therefore at considerable amount of works it is better to apply the electrotool. At using power saws it is necessary to check durability of fastening of a disk to a spindle, grounding, reliability of isolation. To work with the electrotool it is possible only in a dry premise.
For pileniem planing which eliminates roughnesses, pokoroblennost, etc. usually follows. Lacks of preparations. At planing receive also the necessary form of preparation.
For planing use planes, sherhebel, shpuntubel and other special tools.
Prior to the beginning of works it is necessary to adjust the tool: it is good to grind a knife, to clean agnails, zasinenija and other defects; the edge should be let out for a sole exactly, without a warp. Correctness of release of an edge check, lifting a plane upwards on level of eyes. If thus the edge is visible in the form of a narrow strip-thread, the knife "яЁшёрцхэ" means; correctly.
a Fig. 5. The adaptation for curvilinear sawings up
If the knife needs to be taken out, take a plane in the left hand and, slightly striking a hammer on an end face, weaken a wedge (fig. 6).
Before planing preparation fix on a workbench so that the direction of fibres coincided with a planing direction, differently wood will be pinned up also a surface it will turn out rough. At a workbench it is necessary to stand at the left on a planing course, half-turned, having exposed forward the left foot a little, and right to arrange in relation to it at an angle 70°.
At such working position and a small inclination of the case forward to work more conveniently. It is necessary to plane movement of hands in full scope, in regular intervals pressing the tool case. The right hand take a back part of the case, left - a lobby. At planing by the left hand slightly press a forward part of a plane, right - on back, and it is necessary to press the end of processed preparation more the right hand, that not "чртрыш=і" the ends of details.
If preparation has a rough rough surface, it needs to be processed in the beginning sherhebelem, then an unary plane, and for reception of purer surface - double.
Quality of planing check a joiner's square.
Drilling apply to reception in preparations of through and not through cylindrical and conic apertures for nagelej, large thorns, bolts. Besides, by means of drilling delete knots.
a Fig. 6. Plane adjustment :
And - zakreplenien a knife; - alignment; in - wedge easing
The Centers of apertures mark shilom or crossing of two lines. In places of different density of wood, for example at knots, it is recommended to bore through the centres a thin drill to avoid aperture displacement at drilling by thicker drill. Perpendicularity of a drill check at the very beginning of work and after the drill will enter into wood. If it is necessary to do some not through apertures on certain depth, a drill either put on the brusochek-terminator, or put corresponding on a thickness brusok sideways drills and drill until while tightening the cartridge of the drilling tool will not rest against it. That the tree was not pricked at a drill exit, through apertures do from two parties. For this purpose it is necessary to watch a drill exit on an underside. As soon as its edge will seem, preparation overturn also drilling finish from an underside. If deep, a drill it is necessary to take out and clear an aperture of a shaving periodically. For drilling of apertures at an angle to a plane of preparation by means of a chisel do a notch in the form of a right angle, one of which parties is perpendicular to a drill direction. For the same purpose it is possible vystrugat special brusok in which to do an aperture providing a direction of a drill under the necessary corner.
Apertures in the details intended for connection by screws, drill simultaneously in two details a drill which diameter is less than diameter of screws.
In very dense, and also in end faces of fragile wood under a smooth part of a screw do additional drilling. Besides, before screwing up in dense breed it is possible to grease a screw with soap.