The Basic defects of linoleum floors are swellings, sinuosities, otslaivanie edges, etc. At backlog of linoleum from the basis and presence of swellings it is necessary to pierce shilom the blown up places and to let the air out. If linoleum has been pasted by the rezino-bitumen mastic, the lagged behind places can be smoothed a hot iron through a layer from a fabric.
On the wiped places it is possible to put a patch. For this purpose from the same linoleum cut out a squared piece in the size blocking contours of the worn out place. The cut out piece impose on a repaired place, and then by means of a ruler and a knife do prirezku. The laid piece cautiously bend to the middle and on the basis gear shpatelem put mastic. Then press linoleum to the basis, smooth and prigruzhajut. In the same way paste second half of patch. Coverings from polyvinylchloride tiles repair the same as also linoleum. A difference only that in this case it is necessary to delete the tile which has failed completely. At otslaivanii separate plates they should be removed, cleared of old mastic.
It is necessary to Clear as well the basis. If it damp, it needs to be dried well. Tiles paste into place with the help polivinilatsetatnoj emulsii, rezinobitumnoj mastics, mastics ДФИ-7П and others.
To the basic defects of a parquet floor arising in the course of its long operation, loss separate klepok or the whole sites of a floor, formation of cracks between klepkami and istiranie a parquet in places most heavy traffic concerns.
For replacement separate klepok or the whole sites of a parquet floor it is necessary to take out, first of all, old klepki and to clear the basis of a floor of a paper, a dust, mastics. If board, separate klepki it is possible to nail up the basis directly to boards. That hats of nails were not visible on an obverse surface klepok, they should be compressed flat-nose pliers. Hats will plunge into wood, having left on klepke insignificant dredging which can be zashpatlevana the joiner's glue mixed with sawdust.
Considerable sites of the damaged floor on the wooden basis restore by means of fastening klepok in the bottom edge nails. Finishing klepku it is possible to plant on glue.
Klepki can be pasted also on the wooden basis of a floor joiner's, kazeinovym, КН-2 and other glues. After drying it is necessary to make tsiklevku a floor.
If the floor basis cement-sandy, klepki paste on bitumen mastic, nagretoj to a hot condition more often. The cracks formed between klepkami, it is possible to close up the putties, one of which recipes is resulted more low. The mastic structure (in parts on weight) includes the sifted sawdust - 5, portlandtsement - 5, joiner's glue - 2 and water - 14.
Joiner's glue cook, then add cement and sawdust. Carefully mixed mix which has been warmed up to temperature 40-50°Р, is ready to the use.
The Way described above, closes up also the cracks formed between parquet boards and boards.
After end of repair work a parquet floor rub with mastic or cover with a layer of a facing varnish.
Before to varnish a floor, the parquet needs to be cleared of old mastic as it interferes vpityvaniju and tverdeniju a varnish carefully. The old layer of mastic is erased by a steel shaving or scratched out tsiklej. It can be removed partially also a wet sexual rag. Thus it is desirable to use for floor washing a warm 2-3%-s' solution kaltsinirovannoj soda (in one litre of water to dissolve 20-30 grammes of soda). After that a floor rinse pure water and dry up. If wax was absorbed deeply during a wood time, the floor is necessary for wiping still a tampon moistened with turpentine.
After polishing and careful clearing a floor ground a warm light nitrovarnish. After a half an hour it is possible to put the first varnish coat on it. A floor varnish a brush three times with breaks at 16 o'clock.
The Most widespread varnishes for a floor - pentaftalevye. Surface much steadier against wear process is formed by pitch varnishes. Equal with pitch durability possess poliuretanovye varnishes УР-293 and УР-294. They give colourless and very firm film. Before their application it is necessary to dilute butilatsetatom, complex solvent № 189 or thinner СР-2. Cover a floor with such varnish 2-3 times with a 25-one hour's interval.
Care of a floor covered with a varnish, consists in wiping by its rag moistened in a solution of soap water. Washing of a parquet by other water is not supposed. Under the influence of dampness the parquet inflates and lifts nails with which it fastens a little, and after drying starts to creak. Therefore at removal of old mastic it is necessary to use water as less as possible.
Deal floors while in service crack more often that leads to formation of cracks. Therefore repair of deal floors is reduced to splachivaniju and replacement of the separate warped or rotted through boards. Repair of deal floors is carried out in such sequence. Plinths first of all act in film. Then by means of an axe each board rises and precipitates into place. The acted nails are taken out by pincers. 3-4 boards released from nails rally by means of wedges then each board is beaten by several nails to logs. Hats of nails are necessary for compressing flat-nose pliers and to drown in a board on depth of 2-3 mm. After the termination of repair of a floor establish plinths.
The Closing stage of repair of deal floors is colouring. An old exfoliating paint scratch out shpatelem, and from cracks between boards delete old putty, sand, dust and ogruntovyvajut drying oil.
Small cracks cover ordinary shpaklevochnoj with a mix, and in dry premises apply glutinous shpatlevku, and in crude - semioil.
Simple semioil shpatlevku it is possible to prepare on the basis of the glutinous. In 5 litres of water 0,5-0,75 kg of joiner's glue are dissolved and to the received glutinous solution 1-1,5 kg of drying oil are added. For simplification of drawing on a floor shpatlevki it is desirable to add to the received mix 0,1 more litres of soap water (dissolve nearby 100-150 g soaps) and a ground chalk before reception shpatlevki dense smetanoobraznoj viscosity.
At preparation stronger oil shpaklevki to 4 kg of drying oil add 100 g turpentine, 1 litre of soap water (100-150 g the dissolved soap) and 2 litres of 20%-s' glutinous solutions. Into the received mix enter a ground chalk to smetanoobraznoj consistences.
In premises it is expedient to apply glutinous shpatlevku as shpatlevannyj it the floor gives in to polishing is easier. In premises with a damp mode of operation, for example in kitchen, a bathroom, it is desirable to apply semioil shpatlevku.
Shpatlevku put on a floor wide shpatelem. At the first shpaklevanii fill and level cracks between boards. In this case shpatel moves perpendicularly to boards.
After drying of the first layer shpatlevki and grindings of larger roughnesses cover a floor with a continuous thin layer shpatlevki. Thus it is necessary to apply to reception of a smooth and equal surface whenever possible wide shpatel which can be made of steel plastic or an old saw. For this purpose from a saw cut off a piece in length of 30-40 sm which fix between two rejkami or plates. Such shpatel gives a direct and equal surface at high efficiency of work. For shpatlevanija a floor it is possible to apply also wooden (plywood) shpateli in the width 15-20 see
At continuous shpatlevanii shpatel that moves at a small angle to boards in one, in other direction, and the general direction of work - along boards. Movement shpatelja at shpatlevanii forms so-called "хыюёъѕ". Larger roughnesses smooth down after full drying shpatlevki and a floor oshpatlevyvajut again.
For polishing of roughnesses it is desirable to use pieces of a soft brick or a tile. Last polishing spend the skin which has been reeled up round a piece of wood. A dust formed at polishing, it is necessary to sweep carefully before floor colouring with a dry-brush or a brush.
After polishing and clearing of a dust a floor ground warm drying oil. After definitive drying of a first coat (in 2-3 days) it is possible to start floor colouring.
Usually to a floor covering apply the oil paints which are let out in a ready kind specially for floors.
Begin colouring with plinths. In order to avoid paint hit on a wall it is necessary to apply a small brush.
At colouring of plinths oil can filter into wall-paper. Therefore the strip of wall-paper adjoining to a plinth, of 1 sm preliminary is recommended for the width to moisten with soap water.
Floors paint usually two times a brush in diameter of 4-5 sm or the platen. At the first covering the paint can be slightly more dense, and at the second - more liquid. It is possible to put the second paint coat only after definitive drying of the first, otherwise the paint can not dry up at all.
Repair of floors with a covering from plates of a natural or artificial stone consists, as a rule, in restoration of the lagged behind plates from the basis. For this purpose such plate take out, deepening by means of a chisel and a hammer a layer from a cement-sandy solution to the basis so that the plate without hindrances freely became into place. After that clear an installation site of a plate of a dust, moisten it and a plate with water and on a cement-sandy solution of structure 1:3с the help trambovki or a hammer through a wooden lining stack a plate. Then delete a superfluous solution and fill empty seams. It is necessary to humidify the repaired site.