Preparation of the bases under facing of walls and packing of floors by tiles consists of clearing of a surface of the solution rests, skalyvanija flows and ledges; zadelyvanija hollows and a notch of furrows for the best coupling of a solution with the basis and clearings of a dust after a notch, washings by water and ogruntovki cement milk (it is possible to replace with water solution PVA).
If the surface intended under facing, is painted by oil or other not water paints, tiles can be pasted, without removing a painting layer. Glutinous, and also other water structures it is necessary to remove colouring. A surface on which the tile will be glued, it is necessary ogruntovat the diluted glutinous structure; smooth surfaces before ogruntovkoj to process an emery paper.
Depending on a material of a revetted surface deviations from the specified scheme are possible. For example, brick and stone walls if they have deviations and defects, it is necessary to plaster a cement-sandy solution of structure 1:4 with the subsequent natsarapyvaniem grooves. Wooden and gipsokartonnye surfaces plaster with application of a metal grid with cells 30X30 mm a structure solution 1:3 - 1:4. The metal grid is necessary for isolating from a wooden surface a roofing material layer. An oil paint from the plastered surfaces clean off, as it is described in section "¦ры Ёэ№х Ёрсю=№". After that a surface notch.
Facing ceramic tiles can differ from each other on colour, drawing and the size, to have the defects received at roasting, the beaten off edges and corners. Therefore before the beginning of works of a tile it is necessary to sort. For well looked through sites of a revetted surface it is necessary to select tiles of one size, using for this purpose a template, krestovinu from two wooden bruskov or a framework-cell, which sizes are equal to standard dimensions of a tile (the rejected tiles can be used for manufacturing of halves, quarters, etc.).
The Surface intended under facing by tiles, proveshivajut also mark. It is necessary for beginning master to check up carefully vertical position of a surface and corners by means of a plumb. Taking into account a thickness of a solution in corners of a revetted surface hardly above the top border of facing, drive in nails and pull a cord. In the sequence described earlier, establish majachnye nails in all basic points. Then by means of a tile and a ruler mark the future facing, count up quantity of tiles among, possible halves, etc.
If facing is conducted in premises where still there are no floors, it is necessary to plan a line of a wearing floor on a wall and on it to establish and well to fix rejki which will support the first row of tiles. If floors exist, the first row directly adjoins them.
Facing of external surfaces of walls begin after the termination of a laying which carry out vpustoshovku. If a laying with a full seam a surface it is necessary to notch or clear away seams on depth of 10-12 mm.
The Spadework before facing of external surfaces same, as well as at furnish of internal walls. The difference consists only that beacons should be established on the sites limited to elements of a facade of the house (window and doorways, a window sill, an eaves) so that facing seams coincided with vertical and horizontal elements of partitionings.
For packing of tiles on a floor there should be a rigid, prepared basis, with a strong and equal surface. All defects on the basis are necessary for eliminating.
The Device the bases (coupler) - one of the most important operations causing quality of the future facing. The coupler is the layer of a cement-sandy solution forming a rigid bark on nonrigid or porous elements of overlapping. It is arranged also for alignment of a surface of a floor or overlapping, giving to a covering of the set bias, etc. A thickness of a coupler on concrete overlapping or the basis - 15-20 mm. If the coupler keeps within on izoljatsionnyj a material lying on the spreading layer, its thickness reaches 40-50 mm. At the tiled floor device on the wooden basis its surface is covered with a waterproofing layer (for example roofing material, a polyethylene film), then a metal grid and after that the coupler of 30 mm keeps within in the thickness.
The structure solution is applied To a coupler (1:3) - (1:4). A coupler is better to carry out on majachnym to elements. For this purpose two rejki, couplers equal to a thickness, are established strictly horizontally along a premise and fixed by a plaster solution. Then the interval between rejkami is filled with a cement-sandy solution and levelled by a rule. After the coupler will harden, rejki and a plaster solution delete, and the remained deepenings in a coupler fill with a solution.
Premise Breakdown consists in a preliminary apportion frizovyh numbers of tiles for the purpose of definition of frequency rate of the sizes of a tile and a floor. If tiles fall outside the limits the floor area on 10-20 mm, it is better not to cut them, and to cut plaster and to get them in the done grooves.