That the surface was equal and had no deviations in a vertical and horizontal plane, oshtukaturivanie to the beginning master is better to carry out on beacons. Beacons name directing, imposed on plastered surfaces for reception of qualitative plaster. Carry out them or from a plaster solution, or from wooden bruskov.
For the device of beacons, first of all, it is necessary provesit walls, i.e. To check up a deviation of their surfaces from vertical and horizontal planes. Walls and ceilings into which it is possible to hammer in nails, proveshivajut, as is shown in fig. 15.
a Fig. 15. Sequence of installation of marks at proveshivanii walls
At proveshivanii walls the first nail hammer in the top part on distance of 300-400 mm from a corner of a wall and from a ceiling. Over a surface of a wall the nail should act on the height equal to a thickness of the future plaster - from 15 to 30 mm depending on a material and quality of a surface of a wall. To a nail hat it is put (or becomes attached) a plumb, in the bottom part of a wall at height of 250 mm from a floor hammer in the second nail so that the hat concerned a cord. If height of a premise more than 3 m, at proveshivanii it is necessary to hammer in intermediate nails. The same carry out at a wall opposite edge.
After that the cord on a diagonal between the top and bottom nails of extreme numbers proveshivanija stretches. The tense cord should lag behind acting parts of a wall on 5-10 mm. If it concerns a surface or there are from it on distance less than 5 mm the first top nail interrupt taking into account the minimum thickness of plaster on acting parts. Then, having repeated proveshivanie, interrupt also other nails. Level is in the same way defined, and intermediate nails on a vertical are hammered.
Nails show a thickness of a layer of the future plaster in different places of a wall.
Nails cover with a plaster solution, cutting it level with with hats and forming it tetrahedral truncated piramidok - marks.
In the Similar way proveshivajutsja and gvozdimye ceilings, only level zabivki nails it is checked not by a cord, and vaterpasom.
For proveshivanija walls into which it is impossible to hammer nails, apply marks from a plaster solution which put in the same sequence, as well as nails. For this purpose on a wall surface put a little a plaster solution which press a grater to necessary height according to a plumb or a cord. In the same way place marks and on negvoedimyh ceilings.
To the established marks in the form of nails or plaster flat cakes vertically put a rule and fix a plaster solution. Space between a rule and a wall plane fill with the plaster test or an izvestkovo-plaster solution. After tverdenija the test or a solution a rule remove and on a wall surface there is a strip in width of 50-80 mm, named a beacon. Strip edges should be cut off and smoothed down accurately. Beacons it is possible to have from each other on distance of 1200-1500 mm.
a Fig. 16. Operations at carrying out of plaster works on beacons :
And - installation of beacons from reek, - levelling of a solution by a rule; in - zatirka;
1 - rejki wooden 350X20 mm; 2 - a rule; 3 - level; 4 - a grater; 5 - a plaster elephant; 4 - a brick wall
If the area of the surface intended under oshtukaturivanie, small, plaster beacons it is possible to replace wooden rejkami in the thickness 15-20 and width 30-35 mm (fig. 16. The length reek should be on 50 mm of less height of a premise. proveshivanie and the device of beacons is carried out in this case on premise corners. Across from above and from below pull cords, in level with which on izvestkovo-plaster or plaster solutions fix rejki with step of 1200-1500 mm. Places of a leaky adjunction reek to a wall fill with a solution.
Is better to Plaster poslojno, i.e. On a surface consistently, with certain breaks, put three plaster coats - obryzg, a ground and nakryvku. At one time to put thick layers of a solution does not follow, as it can slip in the course of work, and after drying to crack.